Personal Managerial Effectiveness

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Personal Managerial Effectiveness

  1. Introduction

Career is defined as a sequence of functions and work activities occupied by a person during his life and which is associated attitudes and particular reactions. To understand the concept of career, it is useful to separate individual and organizational components. Regarding the individual component, the term career can be defined simply as terms of work experience of an individual. He is following the steps crucial that mark the progress of a professional person. These steps are not necessarily accurately determined and vary greatly by occupational categories to which the culture and organizational structure, individual preferences and aspirations, etc (Greenhaus, Callanan & Godshalk, 2000). Thus, obtaining a promotion is an example crucial stage of career progression. Career paths have impact on individuals and organizations. They affect the performance individuals to work on their satisfaction, health and well-being. Regarding the organizational component, career management is to plan the movements of labor in order to retain employees competent and meet future organizational needs. This is a system which combines the career aspirations of employees and the needs of the organization. The implementation of this system requires the company to will analyze the information gathered from formal evaluations or informal performance, so you can then identify those employees most performance and encourage access to positions of greater responsibilities by providing favorable conditions for their development (Colarelli & Bishop, 1990).

Career management has sparked much debate. As we have stated, many authors agree to define it as a process that combines the needs of individuals and those of the organization. Career planning as responsive to needs of the organization and the people within it, from the point of view of the organization, serves to ensure proper coverage of seats from the third organizational level from the base for the foreseeable future. From the point of view of people, offers candidates with development potential plan to continue their career within the organization. This helps them focus their efforts on learning and experience to be acquired. Furthermore, by predicting a desired future within the organization is an integration element to it. Career planning requires coordinated action of the Human Resources unit and line management. The first should manage a centralized plan, and the line must agree and execute plans. The assessment of the current and future potential has a primary role in career planning (Hackman & Oldham, 1980).

  1. Literature Review

2.1. Introduction

The planning and career management in the context of deep and frequent changes, like those occurring in this region of the world, process seem distant to us. The constraints of everyday efforts have shifted management of human resources to solve immediate situations over an eye toward development purposes in the medium and long term. On the side of organizations, most of the required skills to its members, found the autonomy, initiative, proactive, planning, vision that is the opposite of what is perceived as their professional institutional purpose (Gould, 1979).  Putting focus on Human Capital, based on the Human Resources and Sustainability, involves the challenge of integrating the look on the uniqueness of each individual member of the organization, with the structure of business processes required.  Current practices and effective planning and management professionals from local and corporate careers, for organizational human capital enhancement, from the following premises: The skills development is an integral part of the growth of each person must be deeply rooted in its draft career and life, as well as the needs of the company. Communication and transparency are essential elements of the process to achieve the required results, as well as the express acceptance of them participate in professional (Gutteridge, 1986).

2.2. Process Planning and Career Management

This process involves four steps.

2.2.1. Creating Awareness:

At this stage we consider the domains of competence, personal characteristics.  Interviews are conducted career, self diagnostic test and other assessment tools, in order to investigate the self-awareness that every professional has on it. Moreover, the analysis integrate other existing data in the organization about the person (performance evaluations, potential assessments, 360 degree feedback, assessment processes), to see how it is perceived (Chen, Chang & Yeh, 2004).

2.2.2. Analysis and Reflection:

This stage involves the synthesis and integration of data, identifying gaps and areas for focus. In favour of the broad participation that has professional throughout the process, it attempts to interpret and accept their role in the actions necessary to implement to win in focus and close the gaps observed.  Achieved status a shared vision and a desire to change the current unsatisfactory professional results for those to be achieved, is open plan design development to set the path to move to the desired conditions (Chay & Bruvold, 2003).

2.2.3. Development Plan

The preparation of a development plan is not always an easy task. There is a risk of linking a series of good intentions and after some time to verify that was just that, good intentions. Therefore, some solutions have been provided (Bartol & Martin, 1998).

Focus: What guarantee the effectiveness of a development plan are the magnitude of the effort that we will invest in it and the level of concentration of that effort. Raise many points to develop a negative effect, favours the dispersion and no way to focus efforts on several fronts simultaneously and hold the expectation of success in each of them.

Viability: Plan actions that are available to the professional, but deviate from the ideal, considering its current capacity constraints of time, dependence on third parties, etc.

On the Job: In addition to lectures, courses and knowledge-oriented activities, the important thing is to define concrete actions on the job that will give you the professional exercise and practical aspects to be developed.

Mentor: To develop every aspect necessary to help select people from sharing experiences and giving guidance. The mentor should be an example to improve the appearance, and will be invaluable as is achieved that the supplier is willing to “listen”.

Summarizing, the three essential elements for a Development Plan are: the professional:

Have a clear idea of ​​their needs and areas for improvement, given the results currently achieved (and which are not desired). Have a well-defined project with respect to the actions and timing of work to get them.  Count on an external reference for guidance and support

2.2.4. Evaluation of Results

The regular and structured feedback to development professionals is vital for them to validate the results achieved in its activity. So should establish monitoring and measurement methods for monitoring the development plan, as indicators of improvement. Formal tools can be used in the organization (performance appraisals, 360 ° feedback, for example), or specific measures for each case (record boss feedback on the perception of changes, feedback from the team he works, resource feedback human to make a general assessment of the development and rescue) (Appelbaum,  Ayre  & Shapiro, 2002).

2.5. Development of Managers

The difference with the development of managers, is that career plans are to start them only managers, but includes employees qualified by training or academic college and are designed to achieve long-term goals (3 and up).  According to Cavana, Delahaye & Sekaran (2001), “career planning company aims to equip staff with the necessary skills, indispensable for posts which will become vacant or newly created and which may represent, for those who occupy them, greater demands in the degree of qualification.

2.5.1. Objectives

With career planning is achieved by harmonizing the interests, aspirations and objectives of employees with corporate objectives.
Planning has two directions: one part of the company and other by the employee. For one thing most employees want to advance professionally and achieve positions of greater responsibility and better pay, on the other hand, the company is interested to have trained personnel to positions of greater responsibility for when they become vacant or are created new.
Interest in career planning (Brown, 1998):

  • Decreased concern to the organization that produces the output of employees of the highest caliber.
  • The necessary capacity to adapt quickly to the changes and the time it takes to get the vacancies with urgent unplanned additions.

2.5.2. Stages

A career plan consists of 4 major steps (Granrose & Portwood, 1987):

  • Inventory management and academic graduates -> the purpose of an inventory of personnel is to record all the facts of any importance relating to managerial and staff prepared intellectually. Given the complexity of modern organizations must have a systematic and organized for the collection of all relevant data.
  • Evaluation of potential thereof -> one of the most sensitive for the construction and operation of a promotion model contains cadres collect regular data on features, performance and capabilities of the candidates.
    • Requirements to be met by candidates:
      • Be individuals who demonstrate high performance or ability to work in your current job.
      • They must have sufficient potential to be able to take in the future a senior post. Therefore must meet certain conditions as ability to acquire new knowledge, develop skills, innovative ideas, adapt to change and willingness to take on new responsibilities.
      • Being young, not over 40 years.
      • Having an adequate technical preparation for future careers.
      • Willing to Relocate even by moving workplace.
  • Development of individual training plan -> It is absolutely necessary to have chosen the most appropriate training techniques for each candidate. Primarily focusing on the following routes rotation of posts properly elected to lead the candidate to form not specifically or to be considered a specialist in a particular position, but on an overall view of the organization. It will be necessary to establish a route to be used to collect the employee, through which it will acquire the experience and overview from several perspectives in every room in the functional units assigned.
  • Establishment of substitution plans -> Comport even making organizational schemes in which each person listed potential replacements, considering retirements, resignations, promotions …The replacement scheme does not necessarily intend to address certain people want to promote, but is nevertheless a forecast of what would be unpredictably a position become vacant.

2.5.3. Control and monitoring

Like any plan will require the respective control and observation to see if the facts are developed as planned and, if necessary, make the alterations required by the situation. This function corresponds to the guardian or a person fall one willful and willingly accepts this work or will make the HR director, setting a date of contact to discuss developments with the beneficiary of the career plan and many times more urgent as advice (Gregson, 1987).

  1. Critical Analysis

3.1. Factors affecting Careers

In the fast paced world we live in can not miss any details, especially when it comes to their employees. Helping to grow talent within your company takes time and constant attention from you. Have a system for identifying and developing strategic talent and critical roles within your business, now and in the future, a process often becomes difficult to implement in one that takes advantage of always having developed and available talent.

3.1.1. The new careers, an option for the future

Businesses demand more and better prepared professionals that can respond efficiently in different areas and have extensive knowledge of what they do. Even should preferably be able to venture into some other tasks that are outside of their profession. Since the country and its population will experience some changes, new careers are focused on the needs of the future. In many cases, traditional races have adapted to advance the passage of scientific and technological developments. This is the case of graphic design, which initially was done manually and today has evolved to computer design, where there are also contemplated animations and 3D designs. In other cases, entirely new careers emerge from the current needs. For example, careers related to the environment arising from the concern for the care of the Earth (Baruch, 2004).

The advantage of these new races is that the pair will change and in many cases even anticipate them. This can provide a competitive advantage to its students, as they will be prepared to be part of the evolution and inserted into employment more easily. When evaluating what career you choose, you must take into account various factors. The bottom line is very clear that you have your skills and where you want to direct. That is, you must be sure you know what to do, what you like to do and what you want to achieve over the years. However, the world is changing so fast, it is important to visualize the future and try to get ready to face it. Keep in mind that a career lasts an average of five years, and what is popular today, probably to finish the race already outdated. It analyzes the trends of recent years, assesses what were the issues that most concern the world and think about how you could contribute to improve them. So you can work out what areas will be effective in the future and therefore will ensure job opportunities and career growth for you.

3.1.2. People Preparing for the New World of Work

The phases of mergers, acquisitions, regionalization, restructuring of many organizations, are leading to a comprehensive reformulation work on links between people and companies. These changes affect people and cause insecurity. One of the functions necessary current from the role of human resources is to extend the portfolio of services to support people and organizations in the planning and career management, to help sustain that purpose we have shared this, our experience (Baruch, 1999).

The unexpected start of a professional employee within the organization under may be replaceable in a very short space of time. While the production manager, for example, to the company can be a real disgrace, then waste time, customers, money, organizational problems, and may even lead to ruin new production programs and industrial projects. It is therefore logical that organizations try to minimize the negative impact that may result from unforeseen and sudden drops of an executive, through the establishment of appropriate systems.  To alleviate these potential situations is convenient to prepare for filling vacancies “key” that arise in the future, and a good solution is to have staff in the organization that you know well and who can fill the void left by others, i.e., immediate replacement exists so that the organization does not suffer, and the method of achieving this is with career planning (Hall, 1971).

  1. Recommendations
  • Work from the top down: Where would you find yourself before retiring? Do you have a long-term goal (10-20 years)? What steps will lead to the best opportunities to get there successfully?
  • Or working from the bottom up: if you still can not identify the ultimate goal of your career what if you focus on the next two years? Is there a promotion to which you aspire? A different job you’d get? Wish you a transfer to another department or section? Or, perhaps, a unit changes in your current department or section?
  • Knowledge, skills and behavior: Make a list of the knowledge, skills and behaviors you need to qualify for each position, function or responsibility that interests you.
  • Discuss it with others: do not be afraid to talk about your hopes and plans with your friends and colleagues. Think suggestions and prepare a list of ideas. What changes will be needed, both in your professional and personal life, to focus on these ideas?
  • Talk to someone who has already achieved: Do you know anyone who has the job for which you would like to access? What steps did to get it? No need, or maybe you can follow the same path, but maybe you can get some advice or guidance on how to achieve your goal. (The latter is an aspect of the efficient use of a network.) Think also in terms of geography. Want to work in this region or that country? Always helpful to receive information from someone in the place.
  • Network (s) of contact: the exchange of ideas with others often leads to renewed enthusiasm and new sources of information about development opportunities and jobs.
  • Patches and Updates: regularly reviews your career plan to ensure that your objectives and strategy are on track and, if necessary, make the necessary corrections.
  1. 5. Conclusion

Many young people, unfortunately, do not take this situation seriously, had wasted the time to learn about the different careers that exist, programs, schools and not relying on self analyze space and time to reflect on what would be the best career to them. That’s when the career choice becomes a conflict, because when they exit school just become aware of what they want to study, and are pressed for time or because they do not yet know what career to choose. The career choice means choosing a way of life, so it is one of the most important decisions. If we choose the wrong career can have personal dissatisfaction, leading to bitterness and unhappiness of a person. But if our decision is correct, this will help to have a full life and self-satisfaction. Thus we see that a good career choice, made with well-established foundations, largely depend on the happiness or misery of life. The peace of conscience, joy, or troubles, sorrows, failures, will be the reward or punishment of good or bad choices made.

When choosing a career we analyze our abilities: if you do not have a facility for mathematics should stop thinking about being engineers, if we do not like art, we must stop thinking about being architects. Our skills limit the scope of our possibilities, exclude certain careers and lifestyles and even show us our way positively.  Other consequences of the wrong choice of career are loss of time or effort, because if you decide to explore other career when you study a semester or a year you gave another account that you did not like, this year is already lost and empleaste misspent much effort, because chances are you will not serve for another career you want to study. Although it is said that it can be considered not as a waste of time, but as a time to learn new knowledge gained. Another situation that occurs in these cases is the loss of money from the family, as it invested in something that will not be productive or necessary. The bad career choice affects in a special way in society, as it lengthens the time of preparation of the professionals that the country needs.

 

 

References

Appelbaum, S.H., Ayre H., & Shapiro, B.T. (2002). Career management in information  technology: a case study. Career Development International, 7(3), 142 – 158.

Bartol, K.M., & Martin, D.C. (1998). Management. New York: Irwin McGraw-Hill.

Baruch, Y. (1999). Integrated career systems for the 2000s. International Journal of Manpower, 20(7), 432 – 457.

Baruch, Y. (2004). Transforming careers: From linear to multidirectional career paths  organisational and individual perspectives. Career Development International, 9(1), 58 -73.

Brown, B.L. (1998). Career development: A shared responsibility. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education Columbus OH, Digest No. 201.

Cavana, R.Y., Delahaye, B.L., & Sekaran, U. (2001). Applied business research – qualitative and quantitative methods. (1st ed.). Brisbane: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Chay, H.L., & Bruvold, N.T. (2003). Creating value for employees: investment in employee development. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(6), 981 – 1000.

Chen, T.Y., Chang, P.L., & Yeh, C.W. (2004). An investigation of career development programs, job satisfaction, professional development and productivity: The case of Taiwan. Human Resource Development International, 7(4), 441 – 463.

Colarelli, S.M., & Bishop, R.C. (1990). Career Commitment  – functions, correlates and management. Group & Organization Studies, 15(2), 158 – 176.

Gould, S. (1979). Characteristics of career planners in upwardly mobile occupations. Academy of Management Journal, 22(3), 539 – 550.

Granrose, C.S., & Portwood, J.D. (1987). Matching individual career plans and organisational career management. Academy of Management Journal, 30(4), 699 – 720.

Greenhaus, J.G., Callanan, G.A., & Godshalk, V.M. (2000). Career management. (3rd ed.). New York: The Dryden Press.

Gregson, T. (1987). Factor analysis of multiple-choice format for job satisfaction. Psychological Reports, 61(5), 747 – 750.

Gutteridge, T.G. (1986). Organisational career development systems: The  state of the practice. In D.T. Hall & Associates (Eds.), Career development in organisations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Hackman, J.R. & Oldham, G.R. (1980). Work design. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Hall, D.T. (1971), A theoretical model of career sub-identity development in organisational settings. Organisational Behaviour and Human Performance, 3(1), 50 – 76.

 

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