Employer Branding through Social Media

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EMPLOYER BRANDING AND SOCIAL MEDIA WITH AN EMPHASIS ON IT COMPANIES IN SLOVAKIA

Chapter One: Introduction

  • Background

A brand is a mixture of tangible and intangible attributes that identify, remember, differentiate and position in the mind of a customer to a company or a product or service. Companies working in brand management create value and distinguished from other competitors in its market segment. The brand initially was associated with the products and services, then companies began to manage their brand and on this, the marks of its products on a broader umbrella welcomed. Subsequently, other attributes linked to the companies were it relating to the global brand, it is how the concept behind league brand and today attributes such as social responsibility, work environment, Reputation and Employer Branding. Employer branding describes the personality of a company as an ideal employer (Radford, 2009). The term “Employer Brand” was first used in the early 1990s to represent an organization’s reputation as an employer. This term also includes long term strategy that creates an organization’s identity as a business in the employment market. Ambler and Barrow define employer brand as the package of functional, psychological and economic benefits provided by employment, and identified with the employing company” (Ambler and Barrow,1996). As defined by Minchington employer brand is the image of organization as a great place to work in the mind of current employees and key stakeholders in the external market; i.e. key stakeholders such as; active and passive candidates, customers, clients and other. The art and science of employer branding is concerned with the attraction, engagement and retaining initiatives targeted at enhancing company’s employer brand (Minchington, 2010). (Barrow and Mosley, 2005)  Employer brand is understood as a brand which distinguishes it from other competitors in the employment market. Very important factor in achieving employer branding goals is to have a clearly defined employer brand strategy.  In terms of strategy, companies are constantly looking for ways to make the most possible the different capacities and competencies of its different organizational areas and workers. One of the most interesting is the relationship that develops between the functions of marketing and human resources, which has developed the concept of Employer Branding in recent decades.

The intention of this thesis is to determine the variables that are highly valued by young professionals when it comes to search and choose a place to work. For this, an empirical study which is expected to determine those specific dimensions and variables that are attractive to the study segment is made. It is intended to help guide how organizations may or may not be effective when it comes to attracting and retaining young talent your organization. The research takes as its focal point a tool increasingly used by IT companies in Slovakia to attract and retain talent, “Employer Branding” (EB hereinafter). The intention is to use the marketing tools in the internal management of strategic activities, to the extent that enhance organizational performance pro people, mixed with the capabilities of the human resources department to make this happen are. Then the handles marketing communications “brander” the company as a “mark of employability”. The EB is responsible for this, to build brand employability in the labour market. The methodology used in our study initially involved the construction of a survey by a process of testing and re-testing it, being measured in Likert scale of importance from 1 to 7. Once the data obtained, we conducted multivariate analyses.

Note that in Slovakia the EB is a relatively new topic, and has little literature, so this research lays the foundations for further deepening of the central point’s thanks to research done through the collected data are developed. In turn it is expected to consistency view scales and sample results constitute a major contribution to the “initial toe” EB practices and high employee empowerment of young organizations within the country.

Today, organizations not only manage to increase brand sales of their products, brand managed to gain recognition, pride of belonging, emotional connection and also to attract talent in the labour market.

So in internal and external communication not only they weigh the commercial attributes, so do corporate attributes that begin to have an impact on the decision to purchase a particular product, exist even campaigns to encourage or discourage the purchase of a product’s reputation , work environment and other factors linked to the corporate brand.

Thus marks not only identify or differentiate, but go on to represent a set of stakeholders linked to them, and shareholders, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society in general are closely interconnected to the success or failure of brands that are related directly or indirectly. It is easier to add stakeholders for well-managed brands and is difficult to retain these groups when a brand starts losing power, position and prestige in the market.

The aim of Employer Branding is building a reputation as a good employer for both current employees and future. The employer brand is “managed” and therefore is perceived by employees as the labour market. In an increasingly competitive environment in which innovation, quality and productivity have become the differentiating attributes when defining the winners and losers in a market, companies feel the need to attract and retain the human talent available in the labour market.

Branding refers to co-brand and corporate identity attributes with the characteristics seeking employees and job applicants an organization, so it is important to identify the drivers or attributes that make an employee decides to choose or remain in an institution, based aspects such as compensation, benefits, development, personal growth, success, good working environment, good social reputation, among others, that influence the decision of a current or potential employee to apply for a particular organization.

Eventually Employer Brand take more force in the global brand and the following years will see that institutions and companies will be committed to design and implement a plan of employer brand in order to attract and retain the best talent.

A company or institution with managed employer brand is consistent with your value proposition and is reflected in the actions of his staff-at all levels and at every moment thanks to a strong emotional connection between the company and its employees.

Today companies have an important to keep human talent and bring their businesses challenge. Every day the competitiveness between companies causes them not only worry about the basic needs of their employees, but go beyond this and generate added value to its human talent. That is why today resonate strongly terms as internal marketing, employee engagement, Involvement and emotional salary, among others. All these tools have emerged in response to changes in the projects living and working professionals as well as to the demands and sophistication of the labour market. As professionals are entering and growing in their careers, depending on your tastes and profiles they have seen a list of companies considered attractive market to work based on their own perceptions consistent with the aspirations that align with projections and the image of organizations. These changes in the needs, tastes, perceptions and aspirations of potential internal clients are those who become a challenge for a company that wants to achieve capture attention, attraction and preference of the talent available.

Thus, in the line of CESA marketing research, he developed an exploratory study on the application of marketing in companies with a view to ascertaining the required factors in our work environment by employees to retain talent by using the tool of emotional salary. This exploration concerns about the need to deepen the implementation of the marketing companies emerged as it affects their performance in the long run, since the challenge faced by the Human Resources can be overcome by marketing tools, such as the employer or employer branding mark. In search of the employer branding it found that global companies and apply a couple of decades, however, in our country is not currently common to find documentation on its application and, therefore, not about its construction and management. Thus, the problem statement is to answer the question: What are the features, benefits and the process needed to develop a successful employer brand or employer branding? Therefore, the objective was to explore this issue in order to identify these variables according to the knowledge and experience applied today as a key tool of big companies in the world with a view to achieving an attractive and differential identity.

To get an idea of ​​the concept, its characteristics and its process of construction, a documentary research was conducted by reviewing different texts such as specialized books on theory building and brand architecture, newspaper articles and online virtual magazines specialized in marketing and in human resource management, and articles of empirical studies, which provided information and witnesses to the conceptual reality regarding the issue and its current applications.

1.2. Research Aim

The aim of this research is to analyse the impact of employer branding and social media with an emphasis on IT companies in Slovakia.

1.3. Research Hypothesis

One of the aspects to consider when creating a brand is that through it must be able to identify the values ​​and philosophy of the company; also it must generate recognition and differentiate them. That is why the brand should think as a reason, a purpose, the main goal should be to achieve identifiable by people as something that fills them and gives them motivation to be.

Social media communication and the employer brand perceptions in the context of the IT companies in Slovakia.

The first sub-question discusses the job seekers and their perception of employer branding through social media. This part consists of experimental elements, in-depth interviews, and the data from 3-5 companies of the information Technology sector. The experimental elements contain visual aids that present the employer brand communication from various different perspectives. The various forms used for representation are discussion, recommendations, advertising, etc. The IT industry is closely related with the employees, these companies have specialists and developers that help in improving the products or services. Data was collected data from individuals who were exposed to employer branding. There are other aspects like identifying the behaviour and attitude changes when people are exposed to the different types of employer brand communication. Cable and Turban (2003) state that people use different tools other than employer brand communication, like recommendations, comments, and information on the social media platforms. These factors influence how individuals perceive a particular firm or organization. This study will identify the most reliable sources of information regarding the employer companies, for the job seekers. Furthermore, it will investigate how the different communications between stakeholders have an impact on the reputation of the employers.

Is the job search process influenced by the Generational differences?

The second part of this quantitative study focuses on the importance of employer brand communication in the job process. To understand this, a comparison between two different generations is done. The Generation Y has been compared to other generations by making two groups. The Generation Y and other generations have been compared based on four key elements that are involved in the job process: ideal job, self-efficacy, job search methods, and ideal employer. According to the results, there are no significant differences among the two groups regarding the job search methods, self-efficacy, and ideal job. There were, however significant differences regarding the ideal employer. In this study, empirical evidence has been given to support the importance of employer branding based on the generational differences.

1.4. Objectives

This research focuses on achieving the follow objectives:

  • To develop an understanding of the aim of the employer brand
  • To analyse how employer branding creates value and influence in the labour market as a good employer projected by generating campaigns to attract potential employees, strengthen the existing pride and relate the brand of the company with a great place to work
  • To examine how employer branding is a corporate strategy that allows companies to achieve recognition as a great place to work, both internally and externally, maintained over time.

 

 

Chapter Two: Literature Review

2.1. Theoretical framework

Internal marketing can be understood globally as “a philosophy for managing the human resources of the organization based on a marketing perspective” (George and Gronroos, 1989); this means that now companies must worry not only retains customers, but equally they must do with their employees.

The Employer Branding is a highly specialized business management activity, which is defined by multiple interrelated concepts both inside and outside the organization.

Then we have developed a theoretical framework that explains what the EB, which concepts are actively acting within its processes, and how will the frame of this study and address the matter. Then it delves more into the core concepts of the EB, to pass the EB define those exogenous variables, but they are very important in their dynamics and implementation. Finally generational context is defined as professional focus of this study. So the theoretical framework gives us an understanding of the dimensions that are taken by young professionals into account in deciding whether to work in a company or not then be proven in research to see if indeed this is so. In simple words the Employer Branding is “the sum of the efforts of a company to design, staff and applicants, making it an attractive place to work” (Lloyd, 2002). In other words, organizational activity is responsible for managing the relationships between the organization and the labour market. Just as is done with the product offering, both companies and workers need to convey their intentions to the rest work for generating contact communicate and then perhaps linked occupationally. People intending to find or change jobs offer their services in various ways and for various platforms, today predominantly digital apparently, ease when they apply for so-called portals employment. On the other hand, companies require personnel to compose their human capital, which also has various channels to the labour market and find people with the specific skills required within the organization.

Always promote consumer products or services has been a core process for linking supply with demand, and the labour market has not lived very differently, however Why is reversed if both now in marketing, promotion, customer satisfaction and business links in general, has not reached a similar level of sophistication with regard to labour links? Usually the answer is linked to the reduction of costs; however there is nothing wrong to consider this as an absolute truth. Thus, the EB has to respond, how and where they intend to develop and promote communication links, to gather supply and demand for labour.

Later once understood the relationship that seeks to safeguard the EB, to better understand the composition and Relationships practical and conceptual, has decided to group its components in three major areas: (1) the technical components of the communication activity ( 2) a conceptual framework already accepted in the literature known as “EB Framework” by way of understanding the relationships of concepts, and (3) the components of support behind activity. These elements help to understand the EB, and understand the elements that make an effective construction of “brand employability”.

The reason for the growth of domestic marketing is because currently the generations that are entering companies are not only looking to be well paid for their work, additionally they want to “turn their everyday actions and tasks, something they feel, they want and to do, no one imposed on them “; They expect balance in their lives, value what they do and they are constantly motivated. New generations refuse to live only to work and demand the best companies and remuneration schedules. This young generation -made up of Internet- era is confident and skilled in the use of new technologies. Flexibility and creativity are other characteristics. They have a multidimensional view of opportunities in a multicultural environment. For these reasons, implement the emotional salary is the challenge for many companies. In the US and most countries in Europe, especially in Spain, they have been troubled to know and investigate in depth these needs and demands. Google and Microsoft are a case in point.

The concept of emotional salary includes all forms of compensation, remuneration, non-cash consideration, an employee receives in exchange for their labour contribution. “There is a theory of the 4 C for emotional salary: comfortable enough to work conditions, environmental conditions for the work environment, partnership in labour relations and reconciling work and family” (Gonzalez, 2008).

The fairness and consistency within the company, quality management and business people, and a good relationship with the boss and peers, i.e. a suitable working environment, is one of the most important factors for employees today in day. According to results of the study by Otto Walter, factor predominates above all are the possibilities for development offered by the company for its employees, continued to feel that the company “has a good project”, i.e. “my work serves for something “(Peña, 2006).

In Slovakia, until recently, emotional salary being viewed as essential, not all companies is considering. A study by Human Capital, 61% of Slovakian companies have a practice of emotional salary. The compensation only associated performance or achieving goals in the case of Slovakia (Calderon, 2010, p. 41).

In addition to the emotional salary, companies are also betting on the employee engagement. The idea is that employees should be given the same treatment given to customers, encouraging them, giving them better benefits, making them feel part of a big family. The employee engagement that the company seeks to involve its employees in such a way that they feel they have a great responsibility for the success of the company. The employee engagement should generate a change of attitude on the employee, making him feel a key card for it to realize that this work makes a difference. Based on research of IT Companies In Slovakia there are eleven engines they cause employees commitment by the company: strategic alignment, confidence in leaders, career support employees, opportunities for employee development, immediate relationship with company policies, work culture team, good influence to co-workers, employee recognition, fair pay, working knowledge of the origin of – “the raison d’être” – and origin of the race. Another important factor is to involve internal marketing (Involvement) employees with the company beyond their functions, roles, titles or units; The idea is to get involved so the company can get to create a community of people working for the good of all (Willard, 2010). In short, you can now see that customer retention is not only a business necessity out of doors, it is now equally important indoors with human talent companies. The success depends on the quality with which HR develops strategies for the people feel identified with the company and what it offers in order to successfully perform their work and passion.

Finally, all of these tools contribute in building the employer brand, which aims to create value and influence in the labour market through benefits that are attractive to current and potential employees of a firm. To achieve this it is important to be clear about the importance of representing a brand, and what is behind it as philosophy, values ​​and ideals to reach the mark employer (employer branding).

Companies are trying to generate employer branding actions should be very clear about what own concepts on their own idea of ​​what they are doing. That is, what are actually their strengths and weaknesses (Poblete, 2007).

Many researchers and practitioners have been exploring the topic of employee branding from different angles like human resources management (Bondarouk et al., 2013), organizational behaviour (Aiman-Smith et al., 2001; Cable & Turban, 2003; Cable & Yu, 2006), branding (Elving et al., 2013; Moroko & Uncles, 2009), and corporate communication (Aggerholm et al., 2011; Shah, 2011). Bondarouk et al. (2013) made a lot of research on the perception of the HR practitioners and the academics about employer branding through social media. The HR practitioners were of the view that being updated on social media and various networking practices are enough, while the academics argued that acquiring skills in various web based applications and marketing communication is very necessary. Although there have been many studies and researches been conducted on this topic, still there is a shortage of empirical evidence that can be helpful for the job seekers particularly on the social media platform. There are only a few studies on companies that use employer branding at the strategic and operational levels. For example, there is no answer to the question that how should the companies involve with their target audience in their employer brand communication? Furthermore, there should be studies on how companies can use social media for their employer branding (Backhaus, 2004; Bondarouk et al., 2013; Girard et al., 2013; Laick & Dean, 2011; Love & Singh, 2011; Sivertzen et al., 2013). The questions still remain unanswered about how employer branding is taken by the job seekers and how do they react to the employer branding messages on the social media platforms.

The globalization of the job industry and the war for talent has made many companies to device effective marketing strategies throughout their recruitment processes (Beechler & Woodward, 2009; Chamberes et al., 1998; Elving et al., 2013; Girard & Fallery, 2010). Employer branding basically includes the communication processes through which a company reach their audiences and make themselves distinctive as compared to the other competitors in the industry. The idea of using marketing strategies and techniques was first put forward in 1996 by Ambler and Barrow who discussed the psychological and economic benefits of employer branding (Ambler & Barrow, 1996). Various scholars have focused on organizational behaviour and its effect on employer branding. Aiman-Smith et al. (2001), states that the factors that determine the attractiveness of a firm may be different from the factors that motivate a person to pursue a specific job.

In the recent years, the behaviour of the Generation Y in regard to the job search and workplace process has been discussed a lot. The Generation Y is also called as the ‘Net Generation’ as it has a very different behaviour as compared to the other generations in terms of the media use and attitude (Napoli & Ewing, 2000; Tapscott, 1997). The discussions about the behaviour of the Generation Y have been widely discussed in various academic journals (Choi et al., 2013; Josiam et al., 2009; Harvey J. Krahn & Galamboos, 2014; Lichy, 2012; Smith, 2010; Treuren & Anderson, 2010) and the practitioner literature (Armour, 2005; McCrindle, 2010a, 2010b). To understand the different marketing techniques and strategies to attract the ‘Yers’, it is necessary for an organization to understand the difference between different behaviours and attitudes in IT companies in Slovakia. The technological advancements have brought a lot of changes in the media consumption, particularly in the IT companies in Slovakia, as the use of social media has increased to a great extent. The social media has proved to be a platform that is providing access to a bulk of data and information that was previously unavailable or scarce (Lichy, 2012). Tapscott (1997), states that this generation is very much dependent on the new digital technology. Since 2010, the different social media platforms have been the primary source of information about different companies and their recruitment for jobs (Laick & Dean, 2011). (Herbold & Douma, 2013) state that Facebook and LinkedIn were among the top most visited platforms by people searching for jobs. Looking at the popularity of the social media platforms regarding the recruitment and job hunt processes, it was expected that most of the companies will start providing the recruitment and consumer related information online.

2.1.1 Technical and communications components EB

If it is logical it will begin breaking down the name Employer Branding:

  • “Employer”: The term translates as “employer” or “employer”, and the concept refers to the need for employability of the entire organization.
  • “Branding”: While the word does not have a direct translation, the concept comes from “brand” brand meaning and can be understood simply as “the activity of building brands.”

Therefore EB is a series of activities to generate recognition and brand value in the minds of people, but this time from logic of employability. “Brandear the employer”. To contextualize better shape than elaborates on the complementary concepts of importance, their understanding and utilities for this thesis:

  1. Branding and Brand: The term “Branding” activity creation and brand development, and although various scopes in the definitions of branding, for this thesis further deepening about escapes from the end of it. Thus, for practical purposes in this study is understood as branding: the strategic planning process by which brands, products, services, ideas, people and companies are given, which have attributed a set of intrinsic valuations and / or reputation prior, in order to generate value for its stakeholders.

The theoretical support behind building brand comes from the need to add value to customers so that they purchase a particular product; applied to people management would determine and convey what processes or activities generate value to my potential candidates for these wishing to join the company.

Brands create value; since they have resources, elements or characteristics highly differentiating a company, enabling sustainable competitive advantage to be valuable, rare, inimitable and organizational, that is, a VRIO (Barney, 1991) resource. Therefore, we believe that the branding of a brand in terms of employability (such as strategic planning activity to generate impact on the labour market) is performed under VRIO logic to capture attention and generate interest in people of belonging to the brand, or in other words the organization that this brand represents.

Finally, the fact that a brand is successful employability or no direct impact on whether it will be a resource that generates sustainable value for the company. So, to handle the EB as an active VRIO, it is necessary to apply different mechanisms of activation of this, which is expected, explore this study focusing on young professionals.

  1. Employees and brand image: Although the EB is the promotion of an employee working through an employment value proposition (EVP), the interest is in raising the attention and ultimately generates interest in potential employees promoted to belong to the organization. In turn, the EB acts in two directions, on the one hand should be able to retain and align internal staff of the organization with organizational purposes, and on the other to convey this to the labour market and potential employees have been exposed this information.

People in the organization are a basic asset in generating business value, are valuable assets, not substitutable and difficult to imitate (Barney 1991). Since people are the foundation of the organization is vital to exploit the competitive advantages that these same you could generate the organization. Consequently, mixing the concepts of branding, brand and agency staff, according to Mangold (2007), the concept of EB is directly related to the concept of Brand Image and Branding, where understanding and knowledge of this fully by employees of the organization is essential in order to maximize the generation of value to be obtained. In other words, brand recognition is sought tie as a symbol of the organization and conception with the mission, vision and organizational goals, to align through it all with the workforce of the firm. This becomes possible when the brand, potentially, a powerful symbol of organizational identity for members of an institution.

  1. Psychological Contract Theory and Equity (Mangold, 2007) as already mentioned the EB is directly related to the different people who make up an organization, these concepts emphasize the difference between what it seeks to reflect and that actually it generated in employee employer relationship. Generate a unique identity and brand enhancer. These basic theory, characteristic of EB, or elements allow not achieve these goals. Psychological contracts “represent employee perceptions regarding the agreement reached on the relationship with the organization” (Mangold, 2007). Much of the authors, which review of literature related to psychological contracts, were made, referring to a key point to achieve success in managing employees and branding employer (EB), which is to keep Psychological contracts received by the worker from the organization intact.

As the name suggests in these contracts they are only present in the minds of employees, where they are “formed by a set of formal and informal messages coming from the organization and its representatives” (Mangold, 2007). Therefore it is critical to organizational recruitment processes and deciphers sense of the perceptions held by the employee specifically on employer-employee relationship and the organization, not just incur the consequences break this. These recruitment and transmission of both direct and indirect messages must be clear on what the fund seeks to convey to employees, with the ultimate aim to understand and comply fully with these contracts.

2.2 Brand

It is pertinent to start by having a clear brand concept, which is defined as the identity of a product, service, person, place or company that unlike the others. The brand is evidenced by the set of expressions or recognizable elements whose mission is “making perceptible an entity” (Garcia, 2005). In general, all these components are transmitted through the target communication or public interest groups.

To supplement the definition brings Philip Kotler, “whether in the case of a name, a trademark, a logo or other symbol, a brand is essentially the promise of a selling party to provide, so you consist of Buyers, a specific set of features, benefits and services “(Kotler, 2002, p. 188).

All brands in the world have a reason for being. According to Erin Mulligan (2010), “Brands must create a difference in the world, they have to have a reason to be in an organization that generates and transmits the same commitment to an identity.”

2.3. Benefits

It is important to note that today there are millions of marks and that it is increasingly difficult competition. But having a good brand can get benefits such as facilitating buying decisions, generate remembrance, affection consumers and employees, loyalty and preference for the brand, perceived quality consistent leadership and popularity of the same, differentiation perceived value , personality and organization through associations and finally recognition.

2.4 Evolution brand concept

A brand is a mixture of tangible and intangible attributes that identify, remember, differentiate and position in the mind of a customer to a company or a product or service. Companies working in brand management to create value and distinguished from other competitors in its market segment.

The brand initially was associated with the products and services, then companies began to manage their brand and on this, the marks of its products on a broader umbrella welcomed. Subsequently, other attributes linked to the companies were it relating to the global brand, it is how the concept behind league brand and today attributes such as social responsibility, work environment, Reputation and Employer Branding.

Today, organizations not only manage to increase sales brand central topic Source: UIEM their products, brand managed to gain recognition, pride of belonging, emotional connection and also to attract talent in the labour market. So in internal and external communication not only they weigh the commercial attributes, so do corporate attributes that begin to have an impact on the decision to purchase a particular product, exist even campaigns to encourage or discourage the purchase of a product’s reputation , work environment and other factors linked to the corporate brand.

Thus marks not only identify or differentiate, but go on to represent a set of stakeholders linked to them, and shareholders, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society in general are closely interconnected to the success or failure of brands that are related directly or indirectly. It is easier to add stakeholders for well-managed brands and is difficult to retain these groups when a brand starts losing power, position and prestige in the market.

2.5. Employer Brand

The aim of Employer Branding is building a reputation as a good employer for both current employees and future. The employer brand is “managed” and therefore is perceived by employees as the labour market. In an increasingly competitive environment in which innovation, quality and productivity have become the differentiating attributes when defining the winners and losers in a market, companies feel the need to attract and retain the human talent available in the labour market.

Branding refers to co-brand and corporate identity attributes with the characteristics seeking employees and job applicants an organization, so it is important to identify the drivers or attributes that make an employee decides to choose or remain in an institution, based aspects such as compensation, benefits, development, personal growth, success, good working environment, good social reputation, among others, that influence the decision of a current or potential employee to apply for a particular organization. Eventually Employer Brand take more force in the global brand and the following years will see that institutions and companies will be committed to design and implement a plan of employer brand in order to attract and retain the best talent.

A company or institution with managed employer brand is consistent with your value proposition and is reflected in the actions of his staff-at all levels and at every moment thanks to a strong emotional connection between the company and its employees.

2.6. Being of the opinion

Managing a brand involves two moments employer and perceptions which together underpin a brand as an attractive place for human talent. Behind the definition of employer branding perception of human talent not working in the institution the “Appear” with the reality of the experience of the employee who experiences every day in the working environment of the institution “Being” is mixed.

Both concepts, perceptions and reality, have the same value when managing the employer brand. With the “look good” attracts talent and potential to be “good” relationship with the institution employees strengthens.

Work the being and appearance involves a set of strategies ranging from the measurement of the environment and working environment to the communication and dissemination of the economically active population (EAP) of the value proposition of the brand to the employee. Remember that every employee of an organization becomes a “Brand Ambassador” and build or destroy the perception that businesses need to attract new talent in the market.

2.7 Construction process (internal and external communication)

The construction process begins with the formation of perceptions based on different variables such as opinions and stated positions on various issues affecting one way or another in the companies in which organizations operate global issues, or history characters occupying the prized positions, the public behaviour of managers and company executives including what they say and how they say about the reasons and forms of retirement or leaving them.

Based on these perceptions decisions to work in either company, or even take care deals. Importantly, these decisions have rational character components, but also an emotional one.

Thus, in this decision-making process “purchase” of a labour supply plays an important communication role of the company in all its dimensions. This communication should follow a brand strategy that cans manage like any other marketing management process. So the process of building the employer brand regularly starts with identifying the core values ​​of the organization and covers the entire corporate culture. We welcome the definition of corporate culture expressed by Caprioti, “set of norms, values ​​and patterns of behaviour, shared and unwritten, by which members of an organization governed and that are reflected in their behaviour” (Garcia, 2005). Culture establishes the identity and image, is determined by the selected position and is influenced by both internal and external communication of it and reciprocally between these two areas.

Therefore, the departments of Communications and Human Resources of the company must generate enough messages to people both internal and external, based on corporate performance obtained on the one hand, in the daily working lives of its employees and, secondly, His promise. As for working life, for example, issues such as levels of turnover, working environment, personnel promotions, awards, benefits, duration of contractual relations, among others. As for the promise, the elements that make a workplace that different and competitive, that is, make it unique.

Both internally and externally communicator the company must put into words the arguments, concepts and perceptions that are constructed of hand with employees and also the professionals who want to attract. In other words, in a short statement summarizing the best work experience the company offers candidates to work there. This imaginary being built will be the basis for decisions of those interested to work in the organization by answering questions about features of work experience in the company such as “whether the scope of realization has to do with the rapid rise, with the environment of majority decisions and not by consensus, as other aspects “(Pedace, 2010).

In addition to the work of these departments should be made public relations work specifically in its role of managing the reputation and public image, in order to vehicular of the best values ​​when they are discovered and conceptualized by management of the company, but bear in mind that the main channel of communication of these concepts will be the employees themselves, in their respective spheres of individual and personal action (Pedace, 2010).

It should be noted that internal reputation is reflected in the external sphere, and is easily and swiftly multipliable with the current growth of social networks and the Internet in general. This medium allows the target to focus like no other, having a high range attracting not only professional but appear on news sites, specialized sites, social networking, job sites, blogs or forums employees (Infobrand, 2010).

This apart documented about some aspects of the Slovakia context with regard to elements that must be present on the employer brand, and they are valued by employees, and some cases of application of employer branding are presented.

2.8. National context

As for the key elements that must be present in the employer brand, and that are relevant to employees, such as functional attributes of office, compensation and psychological benefits, some current references on the Slovakia labour context is found in a recent study SENA (Calderon and Naranjo, 2010). They include:

Although in Colombia the practice of pay for performance appears to gain ground, it is an issue that is preached more than it applies. In fact, the study shows that large companies a little more than 50% of employers considered to have efficient to attract, retain talent and target long-term goals (pp. 38-39) systems.

Another challenge in human resource management in the country, pointing Calderon, is the development of organizational culture, because thanks to the importance that has been given to this, companies are practicing in the consolidation of life-work. This because the new generations are more demanding and not just worry about covering their monetary needs, they look for places where work-life balance can.

Similarly, very few certified workers’ compensation where otherwise than just monetary business is practiced. In Colombia are just two companies:

Human Capital, which specializes in human resource consulting and Sacsa, the concessionaire of the airport of Cartagena, which have achieved certification called Family Responsible Companies (EFR), created in Spain by the More Family Foundation which aims to reconcile, harmonize, to reconcile, balance, reconcile, flexibility and balance personal work axes (Money Magazine, 2009).

In this respect the case of McDonalds is exposed. Its vision statement is registered as “skills for life” (Witt, nd), and is consistent with its management in this aspect of human resources because “it is a company that employs 80% of young first job”.

2.9. Media employees. Using the web – employer brand Rankings

Lundquist Employer Branding Online Awards 2010 Global 100 evaluated 100 companies (strongest brands according to BusinessWeek) that use their corporate website to attract and retain the best employees. This study demonstrated the importance of virtual media to communicate and transmit values, philosophy and benefits that have to work with these companies, and the ranking of the companies that best apply it.

According to the study, the battle to attract and retain the best talent has largely moved online. Through this medium, companies have begun to inform users about available jobs, allow children to ride their resumes on site, in addition to inform the general public about the essence of the company, its values ​​and the reasons why your work could result in a memorable work and life experience.

The score was awarded to a maximum of 100. Half of the companies with the best score are in the United States, with an average of 45; the financial sector had a score of 53.9 on average, while consumer companies had 37.4.

Here you can see the position obtained by the 10 companies with the highest scores, due to its outstanding performance in the digital realm to strengthen the employer brand.

Considering the results obtained in this study, one of the positive findings is that 92% of companies have a listing of jobs available on their websites, 88% allow employees to have access to vacancies, and 87 % of companies that adopted vitae (CV) can be applied to various job options.

As the negative, 40% of companies do not communicate clearly what they do and why they do it, 87% did not communicate how to progress in the career and only 3% use social networks to post job vacancies or records a link to the corporate site of the company. All these aspects are an opportunity for companies to improve and differentiate from others.

In 2010, 78% of Slovakian Internet users are members of at least one Digital Social Network (RSN). “Technical Network and social network eventually merge in the language” (Mercier, 2008). For several years now, the term “social network” is widespread in the Internet sphere. When users speak of “social networks”, they are referring to sites “2.0”, such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and YouTube. Many terms are used by the media as well as by researchers: Web 2.0, Social Networks, Digital, Social Media, and Web Interaction.

The rapid development on the Internet of these tools opens up new opportunities for businesses, particularly in e-HRM (Martin et al., 2008; Joos, 2008; Barker, 2008; Andria and Mercanti-Guérin, 2008; Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010, Heikkilä, 2010). Ruel et al. (2009) define HRMT as “an umbrella term covering all feasible integration Mechanisms and happy entre HRM and Information Technologies aiming at creating value within and across organisms and employed for Targeted management.” (P.507).

According to a Slovakian survey (RegionsJob, 2010), 47% of recruiters are now using social media to recruit. 32% of recruiters say they use research of type “name / first name” on the candidates who apply at home and 5% said they had removed someone from the results obtained.

New e-recruitment practices appear. However, these remain very little studied in the literature. These figures however, raise many questions. Why grow recruiters to reach out to these new tools? How are actually used and for what purposes? What recruitment problems do they solve? What changes do they bring in the practices and in the relationships with the candidates?

At first, we will try to clarify the different terms used to talk about “social networks” and we will demonstrate that their use is an important issue for recruitment. Secondly, we will illustrate with four cases of organizations current practices implemented in the context of recruitment policies. Four main results will be well developed. BDD type of web tools is essential but they are now connected to social media. Some social media are used in a perspective employer brand, while others are more mobilized during the recruitment process.

Finally, because of their use, develop new interfaces between firms, companies and candidates.

2.9.1. Social Media and e-Recruitment

We will first clarify key terms used to characterize these new websites providing a classification. We then demonstrate that the use of social media is an important issue in the context of recruitment.

2.9.2 A problematic definition of social media

The concept of Web 2.0 (O’Reilly, 2005) characterizes the evolution of the Internet, focusing on users and promoting exchanges, creation and information sharing. This term does not have a clearly defined border, but rather a centre of gravity around which circulates a set of practices and principles. Although widely used, the term is criticized for its marketing side.

The term “Social Media” is increasingly used to define “online applications, platforms and media which aims to facilitate interaction, collaboration and sharing of content.” (Universal McCann, 2008, page 10). According to Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) it is “a group of online applications that are based on ideology and Web 2.0 technology and allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content.” Cavazza (2008, 2009), distinguishes the tools of expression (publication, discussion, livecast …), networking tools (including professional RSN) of sharing tools (videos, photos, …), games online, or social platforms (including general RSN). These two terms are still large enough and cover a wide variety of sites. Other more restrictive definitions were then developed.

According to Boyd and Ellison (2007) Social networking sites are web services that enable individuals: “(1) construct a public or semi-public profile within a system, (2) manage a list of users with whom they share a connection, (3) to see and browse their list of links and those established by others within the system “(Boyd and Ellison, 2007, p.2).

Thelwall (2009) differentiates: social socializing networks where connections are often used to find and display existing friends lists already “offline” (Facebook); social media networking more used to find new contacts (LinkedIn); Navigation and social networks where connections are used to deploy contact lists allowing access to the resources associated with them (YouTube). Others have wished further limit the field of study. Thus Stenger and Coutant (2010; 2011) repeat the definition given by Boyd and Ellison (2007) and the complement by adding a fourth dimension. According to the authors the ” partner networks” must base their appeal mainly on “the opportunity to regain his” friends “and interact with them through profiles, lists of contacts and applications across a wide variety of activities “(2011, p 13) and not a particular activity. Foundry and Lhermitte (2006) also proposes to define social network sites more strictly, the latter being “specifically dedicated to the creation or rebuilding social connections, their management and / or their mobilization for personal purposes or professional. ” This way they exclude the sites for which social networking features are secondary (eg YouTube).

2.10. An important issue for recruitment

The use of social media as part of recruitment is a major challenge for several reasons.

Traditionally distinguish two main sources of recruitment: the CV and the network. Since the late 90s, the Internet has become important in the recruitment process and has enabled organizations to expand their Data Bases (BDD) CV through three main tools: job sites or job boards, the websites “careers” and the application management software. According to a survey Apec (2010), almost all of the frames offers are posted on the Internet (via job boards or company website) 81% exclusively.

Despite the widespread use of technology in the recruitment, research is scarce and mostly oriented candidates (Bartram, 2000; Lievens, et al., 2002; Wilson and Parry, 2009). For example, several studies concerning the potential business attraction sites (Williamson et al., 2003; Cober et al., 2004; Maurer and Liu. 2007; Thompson et al, 2008), for the use of internet seek employment (Feldman and Klaas, 2002; Kuhn and Skuterud, 2004; Beauvallet et al, 2006; Foundry, 2006b) or specific job sites (Marchal et al., 2007; Jattuso and Sinar, 2003).

From the perspective of the employer, Parry and Wilson (2009) investigated the reasons for adopting career sites and job sites by companies. Parry and Tyson (2008) also conducted various case studies and demonstrated that the combined use of online recruitment site and application management software brought many benefits to companies in terms of cost, efficiency, reliability and service.

Indeed, the Internet has brought various benefits to recruiters in terms of diffusion of vacancies (fast, widely and cheaply), access to the CVs of application processing; and candidates in terms of access to jobs, and broadcast their resumes and applications. The labour market has become more transparent but also more “noisy” (Foundry (2006a) speaks of “noise transparency dilemma”). The Internet has spawned a trivialization of the application form, lowered the level of self-censorship of candidates and generated an increase in applications called “unqualified” (Foundry, 2006b). Applicants are also facing this problem of “noise” due to the increased number of jobs available online; internet can be seen as a jungle (Beauvallet et al. 2006).

Today social media offer the opportunity for companies and candidates to solve this problem of “noise” induced by online recruitment mobilizing more and more effectively their social network as part of recruitment. Social media can enable them to maintain, extend their network to access new opportunities to put in relationship and co-optation and thus filter out relevant information.

Furthermore, the nature of work in the 21st century presents many challenges for recruitment (Ployhart, 2006): work based on knowledge implies greater requirement with respect to the level of employee skills, demographic, societal changes and widespread cultural creating global shortages of qualified and competent candidates, the workforce is also increasingly diverse. Several authors even speak of “war for talent” (Chambers et al., 1998; Guthridge et al., 2008; Cappelli, 2008). The companies are thus in competition and must implement effective strategies to firstly detect talent and to better appreciate their skills, and also to attract the best, acquire and retain in Organisation. The arrival of “Generation Y” (born between the late 70s and mid 90s) considered impatient and demanding vis-à-vis employers or rather the development of a “Culture Y” (Chaminade 2009) would further complicate the task of the companies that will have to be more creative.

Moreover, because of the growing use of social media, the behaviour of Internet evolved and it is the same for one of the candidates. Users are no longer spectators, they have become real consummators information (Rosnay, 2006), create, share, share many contents. They do more reluctant to express their opinions online, to question traditional transmitters to criticize companies on many platforms beyond the control of these. They follow thus via the Internet and social media in particular before making a decision to form an opinion, whether a product, service or their future employer. They also use social media to communicate their interests, their professional experience and thus seek to improve their visibility. These new modes of research and dissemination of information are forcing companies to rethink how they communicate.

Thus we have seen appear new practices based on the use of social media by companies and recruitment firms. However, these remain very little studied in the literature. Some researchers are particularly interested in applicants, their profiles (Kluemper and Rosen, 2009; Dekay, 2009) and their uses NSN (Foundry and Lhermitte, 2006). Other demonstrates the challenges posed by social media for HR and recruitment, based on secondary data (Joos, 2008; Roberts and Roach, 2009, Malita et al., 2010). Girard and Fallery (2009a; 2009b) conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 recruiters in consulting firms in order to know their practices and the reasons that lead them to use social media. Even if all authors agree that social media represent a major challenge for recruitment, there is not, to my knowledge, concrete case studies on these new practices. This communication aims to illustrate these new practices through four studies recruiting firms and companies.

2.11. PRELIMINARY CONCLUSIONS

  • Every day companies must differentiate themselves and be very attentive to the needs of employees, to attract and retain the best human talent.
  • Organizations are realizing that it is not enough if you are giving employees a decent job today employees need more than that and for that reason the time to find places where they are valued are taken and provide benefits demanded by the labour market.
  • Modern organizations see their valued employees, as profitable customers, as they are free to make their own decisions and to participate as they wish.
  • The main objective of the employer brand is projected in the labour market as the “best work experience is in the middle”, creating communication and marketing strategies so that employees feel comfortable and proud of the company that they work.
  • As an employer brand components taken into account the working conditions in the workplace environment also a culture and therefore an optimal organizational climate, and a striking brand based on the values ​​and mission of the company.
  • For employer branding as a first step should be to establish the mission and values ​​of the company on the role of employees.
  • The development of the employer brand is the process of another brand, but involving the Human Resources Manager and the General Directorate.
  • The projection of brand values ​​employing the labour market should be done primarily through investment in specialized media.
  • The value proposition of the employer brand typically includes: the identity of the company, the image that you want to perceive the candidates and market needs or benefits they really value.
  • The way to attract and retain qualified and capable employees doing the best they can their work through their capabilities is through a consistent focus on the benefits.
  • In the process of diffusion of the employer brand cases where actions include programs that connect young professionals, programs for women, mothers, and awards received, among others they found.
  • Proper management of the employer brand creates value and influence in the labour market.

 

 

Chapter Three: Methodology

3.1 Research Methodology

The methodological approach used for research that provides support for this article was quantitative. This procedure had its support in the method of grounded theory (Grounded Theory, Corbin & Strauss, 1990; Glaser & Strauss, 1967), exploratory and interpretative character, trying to understand and find meaning in the situation studied. This involves making a theory that arises with the data collected and that is duly contextualized, taking as essential witness contingencies, experiences and points of view of the actors who formed the unit of analysis, and interacting at all times with the theoretical framework. The complementary method chosen was Ethnography, taken as a methodological guideline that puts all the emphasis on fieldwork, direct contact and observation of the actors are analysed in the natural environment in which they carry out their activities and for a relatively long period of time. The two methodological strategies combined (based theory and ethnography), have manifested as having the potential to provide a detailed understanding of many phenomena of the market (Pettigrew, 2000).

A methodology that is distinctly “discovery” (grounded theory) and no justification, and therefore the categories presented in the research are from a direct inquiry to the elements it uses that are part of the unit of analysis and research are emerging from the data to be collecting (characteristic of grounded theory) and conceptualization of them has been developed with the support of analysis tools of quantitative data and not from a previously established theory (although the review of relevant literature). Suddaby (2006, p. 634) notes that the “grounded theory is not an excuse to ignore the literature” and that, therefore, the method must exist within both research questions as previous literature with which the researcher faces the study.

The final dimensions, their scales, key literature and their respective items are shown in Table I:

Dimension Description Source Items
Career Development and Professional Growth It is understood by development plans and career paths of progress that an organization provides structured. Shall mean Professional Growth learning and personal growth for a worker within the organization. This scale is initially composed of 6 questions; career development will be the elements that measure progression in the chain of command within an organization, and elements of personal or professional development of professional knowledge and skills of respondent’s growth. Both dimensions should be largely related conditions for being in the common case operate as determinants from each other. (Vásquez de

Parra &

Vásquez,

2008) ;

(Coop &

Martin, 2010)

;

(Bruner,

Garcia, &

Zamorano,

2013) ;

Estudio

FirstJob a

Cencosud.

Career Development: What organizations have growth opportunities or career development plan. Organizations have the mobility opportunities for work abroad. That in my work I provide opportunities to make a postgraduate (Diploma, Masters, MBA, specialization course). Professional Growth: That in my work there is a possibility to use my skills and abilities. In my office has a chance to develop soft skills (e.g. interpersonal skills, sales skills, effective negotiation, etc.). That in my work there is a chance to learn and acquire knowledge.
Work Environment Ties and organizational elements that impact on the attractiveness of a company, both in areas of interpersonal relationships and in the workplace in which they operate. This scale is initially composed of five elements, which are expected to have a strong link to the perception that young professionals have with the work environment of the organization. (Chiavenato, 2001); (Vásquez de Parra & Vásquez, 2008); (Torres & Díaz, 2010) Maintaining a good relationship with my direct and indirect leadership. Maintaining a good relationship with co-workers. Perceive an informal and relaxed atmosphere work. Constantly receive feedback both my team and leadership. Having a person destined to support my learning in the company (direct coaching).
Balance between work and personal life Level of integration between work activities and personal activities. The initial scale consists of 8 associated with the time devoted to work elements, recreational and family activities. (Coop & Martin, 2010) ; (Dolcos, 2007) I can be satisfied with respect to the tasks job performance. My work allows me to have time to spend with my family and friends. My work allows me to have time to enjoy my leisure and entertainment. My job allows me to relax enough in my spare time. I can easily manage my work and also take care of my personal needs. My job allows me to enjoy social life. You may have leisure time including inside the workday. My work allows me to have time for my studies.
Prestige It refers to the individual perception of the reputation of an organization. With the 5-item scale you want to understand to what extent the prestige is a mobilizing factor or inhibitor when choosing a company to work. (Coldwell, Billsberry, van Meurs, & Marsh, 2007) ; (Sánchez & Barriusos, 2007) That the organization is working well appreciated by my family and friends. The organization you work has a proven track record. That the organization has good working public recognition (eg Newspapers, awards, general comments). The organization you work does not have a bad reputation. That the organization appears to work well located in rankings.
Innovation Level of disruption of the business model and / or the tasks of the job. You want to measure how disruptive innovations are evaluated and considered by young professionals when seeking work. (Myers & Sadaghiani, 2010) ; (Coop & Martin, 2010) An organization that you have the space to bring new ideas into internal processes. That the organization they belong have innovative policies and practices. The organization for which you work is at the forefront of their technologies and count with modern infrastructure. The organization in which you work is novel in its business activities (eg differentiated products and services, charged with unusual activities, new forms of work).
benefits Or pecuniary compensation package and non-financial incentives that delivers a company to its employees. This dimension has been divided into two scales, April 1 items associated with the importance of economic returns, and 2 other items associated with perception of market events (Coop & Martin, 2010) ; Estudio FirstJob a Cencosud Economic rewards: high fixed salary. Variable pay high. Bonds team goals. Bonds personal goals. Market events: properly adjust their portfolio of benefits to the interests of young professionals. Support academic development of its employees with scholarships.
Vision Green and Social Responsibility Perception of the position and actions of an organization linked to the environmental impact, corporate social responsibility and business sustainability. This dimension has been divided into two scales, June 1 items to measure importance of general concerns about environmental practices and social responsibility, and a second 5-item scale associated with the importance of more specific topics practices. (Coop & Martin, 2010) General practices: Expect ecological practices. Count on social responsibility practices. You worry about your workers. He cares about the community. Be social consciousness. You worry about its impact on the environment. Specific practices: Help local communities. Fair dealing with suppliers. Volunteering foundations. Monetary donations to public causes

 

 

 

Chapter Four: Discussion

Employer Branding activities involve constructing particular attributes (for example the values on a business) that are considered to represent the image that a company wishes to communicate to potential employees, current staff and the public (Bach, 2005). According to Harris, the main components of employer branding are employee communication, employee engagement, training and development, and external reputation (Harris, 2010), getting all of these elements carefully fused together promotes a focused employee recruitment and effective brand management.

The employer brand is the most powerful tool for attracting; attracting and retaining the right culture/talent fit that will help cream of the crop grow their organization. Alike any brand, employer brand is about perception (Radford, 2009). Through Employer Branding, Slovakian companies can influence candidates to join their company through a targeted recruitment strategy and communications methodology according to a wide-ranging new survey from Employer Brand International (EBI) (Employer Brand International, 2010).

To become an employee favourite organization, companies should adopt and implement employer branding strategies. The “Influencers of Employment Choice Global Research Study” surveyed 400+ employees worldwide on what influences their employment choice. This research study investigated the “Influencers of Employment Choice”, precisely, which of 15 employer brand aspects have the strongest impact on why employees choose to join an organization instead of the other. The report includes global segmented results for age, gender, country, organization type, position in company and tenure. One of the research subjects was related to the employer brand scheme. Just 16 % of respondents have a clear employer brand strategy and 13 % of studied employers confirmed no developed employer brand strategy (Employer Brand International, 2010). Therefore, it is believed that employer branding will be a clever move to boost the organization’s reputation and engagement.

A leading example in this field is Universum, which has been exclusively focusing on employer branding (EB) since more than 20 years. Universum drives the industry forward through its employer branding approach and has been presented the world’s Top 50 most attractive employers in September 2010. “The World’s Most Attractive Employers 2010”, based on approximately 130,000 career hunters (students of top academic institutes chose their ideal companies to work), with a business or engineering background, is also released by Universum for the global talent attraction index (Employer Brand International, 2010).

There is a proven connection between excellence in key components of employer branding and the level of market premium organizations enjoy. For Housden, human resource is divided in to the following: Employer Brand, Talent Management, Reward & Recognition, Communication, Recruitment Processes and Performance Management (Housden, 2007). Thus, employer branding expands the scope of the brand involvement beyond communication to integrate every aspect of the employment experience, people management practices and processes that shape the perceptions of existing and future employees (Barrow and Mosley, 2005). In principle, these practices help in making the Slovakian brands to be seen as a set of symbols which represent a variety of ideas and traits, the net result of which is the character, public image or personality of their organization.

Social media is the world phenomenon which is used by more than milliard people and functions as a medium for interactions with friends, business and communities where people create, share, and exchange information and ideas. People around the world communicate and interact with each other, share interests and activities, disseminate information and use various web-based tools. There are several vital features of social media like Participation, Openness, Conversation, Community and Connectedness, as explained by A. Mayfield in his e-book “What is social media?” (Mayfield, 2008).

The influence of modern media is infiltrating to all aspects of our life – both personal and professional. Internet users can hardly avoid it either in a passive or an active form. Government, communities, organizations and businesses also communicate through social media and they use them to access their stakeholders.

Social media is evolving since 1990s and the marketers or influencers keep trying to make the most of the available social networks.

Companies can use various types and formats of social media to promote their products and services. Some of the social media services (SNS) are ‘Owned’ e.g. company’s website or paid e.g. Pay Per Click (PPC) marketing. And the most value is provided by ‘Earned’ media that public or customers create such as Users Forums or News. According to Nielson’s research about trust in advertising in 2012, consumers trust in ‘Earned’ media has amplified as 92% customers over the world trust word of mouth or recommendations from friends or relatives above all other kinds of advertising (Social Media 2012 Business Case and Statistics, 2012).

Petra Nagyova, spokesperson for the Pontis Foundation, highlights the importance of business communication on social networks in the article “Social media require more intimacy” in The Slovak Spectator from December 2012 which says that many firms have realised that social media is an important communication tool and that it is very significant for them to build associations with people and customers (LIPTÁKOVÁ, 2012. Social media require more intimac). For “zive.sk” one out of five Slovaks uses social networks like Facebook, Twitter, Pokec almost every day. Almost 41% of the Slovaks use mobile technologies while accessing social networks (Zive, 2012). L. Faltinová, the executive director of the Donors’ Forum says that Slovaks seems to like to receive information, especially when it is about something new to them, from people they know and thus social media is also considered to be an active tool for spreading information in Slovakia. Other than this, the media still play an important role in addressing the wider community. When reaching an informed audience, social networks are definitely on the top of the list as the most effective and interactive channels (LIPTÁKOVÁ, 2012. Social media require more intimacy). The biggest social network with the 2 490 000 users in Slovakia(SOCIALBAKERS. 2013. February 2013 Social Media Report: Facebook Pages in Slovakia) (February, 2013) creates the most interesting source for marketing presentation of Slovak businesses. But also Twitter and Google+ can play an important role in online marketing in the future. Although they do not spread so quickly, the users are usually IT geeks, professionals and specialists and so the community is more demanding and selective (KADLEC, 2012).

Companies in Slovakia use mainly Facebook to motivate their customers to join their Facebook website. They make a lot of effort to find out new ways how to attract more fans and gain more “likes“to present their business in the best way. Some of them use paid positive reviews, customer contests and promise special rewards for joining the fan page in order to ensure higher costumer community than competition. According to R. Kadlec, there will be a rise in the manipulation of customers in the next 5 years (KADLEC, 2012.. Various companies offer social network analysis or statistics. As an example, there is a Czech-based company known as Socialbakers which allows marketers to find statistics about social networks and brands. The following picture shows the Slovak fastest growing and decreasing pages per day in February 2013 (SOCIALBAKERS. 2013. February 2013 Social Media Report: Facebook Pages in Slovakia).

 

 

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