Drawing on the Visionary
Nothing is eternal. All succumbs to irreversible passage of time: the hair falls, the wrinkled skin, life is over. The ideas and science change. The body scientist and the set of ideas that form the subject matter of this work, challenged at the time the mainstream or scientific establishment (and still do), mainly to introduce in this world dominated by determinism, laws and intellectual rigidity, notions of indeterminism, randomness and even freedom in thought and language of science. Thus, is born a new paradigm, a new way of understanding, relating and understand science in all areas: chaos theory, as it is known popularly, or complexity theory, as it is called in a more comprehensive and effective, although sometimes it is usually appointed jointly, this is chaos theory / complexity. The quote that heads this section not is casual, because his sentence is one of the maxims of this new scientific corpus: the go more there in our explanations of the world and the nature that surrounds us, Brush a new form of dialogue between humanity and the natural world, assay Ilya Prigogine (Heylighen, 1989), a parent contemporary chaos theory and complexity. No limit by the fact that those who preceded us in the time-whether parents, ancestors or the most illustrious scientists such as Newton.
The fundamental dimension of the existence of mankind today is time and it has fascinated artists, philosophers and scientists in every culture in every corner of the world. Every human mind remembers the moment when for them time became a fundamental reality. Ilya Prigogine (1997) in his book defines that Einstein said that time is an illusion. As defined by him and Newton, the nature’s law is timeless. It could not come to understand the complexity that encloses the world which we live, every day more foolish, more confrontational, more chaotic … It makes therefore necessary to think the impossible, achieve the unachievable. A good example of this idea gives us the very figure of other parents of this new scientific model. Indeed, Benoit Mandelbrot, the mathematician father of fractals, received the advice of his uncle, also mathematical geometry to avoid in their research (Campbell, 1974), his uncle never could imagine that intellectual disobedience of his nephew, he would create a new kind of geometry, fractal, which has made it possible hitherto unsuspected findings in fields as diverse as geography, biology, perhaps this was that most interests us, archeology, and more we will see later, the disobedience never been so attractive, nor as scientific.
Moreover, its impact, which will be analyzed along this trial, have not been limited only to the scientific, but that his teachings have depth in other fields of thought and knowledge, such as art, from painting to cinema, as we also have an opportunity to see. To the Like that Mandelbrot, other scientists, each working in their field, each one without knowing the other, were making a series of discoveries that, as the pieces of a puzzle, fitting end gone and have resulted in homogeneous piece, seamless, and the names of Henri Poincare, Ilya Prigogine (Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1977) and its companion test, the philosopher Isabelle Stengers, Norbert Wiener and Edward Lorenz (Mesarovic & Takahara, 1975) resulting eventually familiar to who have bothered to read this work. It is curious that most of the world, if only by hearsay, know the name of Isaac Newton, but that just almost no names are familiar to these researchers, despite to which their findings and approaches have shaken the foundations of Western science to give a new meaning, as it once was hierarchical order, regulated and legislated, now becomes the most beautiful order chaotic, random and indeterminate. Isabelle Stengers (2000) in her article says that what is done by us now is what nobody should authorised to know because it holds to the future and this is the scientific fruitfulness of the kind of new approach by the scientists.
If by definition we know that “theory” is a logical system consisting of observations, axioms, and postulates and predictions and rules that serve to explain certain set of data and even make predictions, we infer that the mention theory of architecture will be studied as that over many years there has been in the field of architecture and the study of the origin of the rules governing it. As the author mentions Jose Villagran Garcia in his book “Theory of Architecture”: “The course of architectural theory, whether in written treaties in the moral teachings of the masters of medieval and Renaissance works in the school chair (Spencer, 1969), for centuries has represented the entry cover theoretical and practical study of architecture “with this suggests that the theory of architecture is the cause, and therefore understand the basis for everything related to the study of this profession. The theory of architecture is all the knowledge that the architect uses in his work, including how to select the best site and the most appropriate building materials. Moreover, there are tips on how to design practical buildings, ease of maintenance and repairs. We find that this includes empirically study materials actually used as a source of architects in their work (Heidegger, 1977).
In her book, Bennett (2009) argues that the political theory needs to be more efficient in order to recognise the involvement of non human forces in events where as Kauffman (2010) believes that the woven integrated complexity of a living cell after 3.8 billion years of evolution is more aspiring then hoe God fashioned the cell. For the people who believe in God, no scientific prove can change the fact. Kauffman argues that science of complexity enables to move beyond reductionist science to something new i.e. a unified culture, where the God is visible in the creativity of the universe and humanity.
- The System Theory
The General Systems Theory, arises from the decade of 1950-1960 and its first exponents were Ludwig Von Bertalanffy, Ackoff, Boulding, Forester, and Resensweig Kast, who mixed mathematics, engineering and computer science. This theory, originally and primarily direct applicability in mathematics and biology, has also been useful for the explanation of certain phenomena in other disciplines and in some sciences (Ruskin, 1853). In architecture and urbanism, has already been implemented by some scholars to develop performance analysis system cities, to explain the growth patterns and to analyze aspects of population movements, among others. With the application of systems theory in scientific research can lead to a change in the way you think and observe phenomena of various disciplines. This theory can be the basis to study various phenomena, aiming at presenting and explaining new concepts of what is studied and, based on its principles and premises, establish specific methodologies that can be applied to the study of complex phenomena in architecture (Wilson, 1987).
An example for the application of this theory in the study and analysis of architectural phenomena on space-time farms are as productive units and consolidated urban complexes. They also represent an architectural phenomenon, a phenomenon of social, economic, ideological, with a multiplicity of circumstances and relationships involved in its development, so it can be considered as a complex phenomenon that is applicable to this systemic vision research. Note that in several disciplines or branches of science, such as sociology, there were some approaches and some issues of this theory were not entirely applicable as there was no build a theory of systems that could be useful to sociology, or not adaptations and additions needed for application to a study of this type. It is interesting to consider these aspects, since the study of the properties must also involve social studies, to understand the dynamics of the phenomenon in its entirety. In the case of architecture, the application of these approaches and criteria analysis is valid and appropriate in certain cases, on the basis that there are abundant bodies own field theoretical architecture based on which we can have a livelihood theoretical-methodological and we can resume and apply to a case like the one proposed (Haken, 1983).
- Contemporary practices in art and cutting edge technologies
Mark Garcia (2009) discusses the significance of diagrams and how they are preferred method for researching, communicating and theorizing. Diagrams are the designs used for architectural projects and thus their rise as opposed to the drawing is one of the most significant developments in the process of design. Hird (2009) considers social scientific topics like identity, sexual difference and ecology from a microbial perspective. Today emergence of new players, companies, institutions and artistic practices characterized and mediated by widespread imbrications of art, science, economics, society and new technologies is not hard to find. The era of computers and information technology opens up new ways to express themselves, to relate, to process technology and art can also turn establish new institutional networks and worldly-between artists, biennales, consumers, spectators, galleries, museums, etc , inside the artistic field. The XXI century art is characterized undoubtedly its overall size. It is an art that spans artistic circuit networks, both, international collaboration between artists and institutions, as well as networks is characterized by the economic dimension of global capitalism. It can also be pointed out that contemporary art is highly characterized by the “assembly”, by the merger of different artistic disciplines and artistic but not artistic motivations (if, for example, science). It is certainly time melting, mix and overlap within the artistic field, where new technologies open the heretofore unsuspected expressive range and make artistic production in a continuous work of innovation, inquiry and research techniques, methods, etc., about the artist tends to channel the “structures of the self”-sometimes augmented by globalization, if identity, poverty, inequality, etc.-or aesthetic reflections on launch own artistic practice.
The application of new technologies in the arts is giving a real sense of art interdisciplinary and truly alive. In the field of contemporary art are emerging players who find the new network technologies and its distinctive and enhancer. Following these brief introductory strokes, we can see how companies are popping-galleries dedicated to spreading computer work of artists represented. The galleries also look conventional Internet. As do traditional auction houses. On E-bay you can buy art and antiques. The art market has also found its place in the emerging digital commerce companies backed loans artworks. There are virtual exhibition of the works of artists that blend with conventional works most innovative artists, resulting in an interesting mix of painting, digital photography, animation, short films, sculpture, video art, etc. In the web find samples drawn purely digital works with new technologies.
Position on contemporary artistic practice is located on the coordinates sociological-science, economics, social relations, technology, etc. – In which art is produced. It is a position that rewards sociological social conditions on the production of the event and of the artistic experience. This position tends to be at appropriate positions by neo-Marxism, if Dale (2007), who emphasizes the interweaving of artistic order and the social world, and most original positions as O’Connor and McDermott (2004) on the practices of the artist within the art field in pursuit of personal gratification and distinction (Latham, 1994). To think the relationship is imposed art-artist-society from a material and symbolic conditions that determine the trajectory of the artist or artistic enterprise conglomerate increasingly homogenous culture. It is believed that this communication on contemporary art-related-sociological dimension, also known by some as postmodern art, has to start from an ideological definition of capitalism. In the same sense of Dale (2007) say that postmodern art is part of the cultural logic of late capitalism. This definition implies that certain practices and artistic and cultural productions are coloured by the current financial and global capitalism, as the laboratory of contemporary art, acting within the artistic field as a private field by joining a generalized commodity production, with the work of art a commodity exchange, and consumption as well as other business.
- Impact of Contemporary Practices on Architecture
Now, you can generate a question surrounding this first part, if art is set to feature the architecture, can be considered both as a trait of being?, By the time it was possible to answer this question by the notion of art compared to the architecture, but if you take a look more intrinsic to society can be seen that art is present in many of the everyday events that give personality to be (expression, forms of communication, intellectual development). It is in the last century, in particular, when the architecture evolved faster. The previous centuries with the addition of new stronger materials such as metal alloys and treatment of the crystals, or with new construction techniques, such as incorporating the tensioners, which allow to build huge domes reducing airborne thicknesses concrete, precast slabs to replace it, and also by the emergence of new cultural styles. In the late 1920s Le Corbusier built the Villa Savoie (Green, Gavin and Aiman-Smith, 1995), a masterpiece that would become one of its most representative buildings. This family house summarizes all theoretical postulates of the author who later would have a decisive influence on the history of contemporary architecture today.
Just as contemporary art from a rejection of historical styles of the nineteenth century, appeared the principles of contemporary architecture born of a break with the revivals. Architecture in the last third of the nineteenth century was still clinging to styles of the past, based on composition systems, techniques and materials of the academic tradition, such as the use of the classical orders, vaults and colonnades that were part of the classical syntax (Pierce and Delbecq, 1977).
Against this, the new architecture proposed other aesthetic principles based on consistent use of new techniques and industrial materials, such as concrete, rolled steel and plate glass in large dimensions. Contemporary architecture, whose first symptoms appeared in several centres in the second half of the nineteenth century, consolidated a large scale in the United States, following the International Exhibition of Modern Architecture organized by the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1932, where he coined the term International Style. The purity of the early rationalist went rethinking gradually, and since the 1970s has been kept under constant review, sometimes even rejecting the tenets of Modernism and International Style. It has been recognized that in recent years the concept of art has moved to another less abstract level, it looks like today have laid aside the canvases, oils, and general strokes that you printed a conceptual idea to a work, but now, he is bound as a distinct component within other disciplines that were thought were unrelated and that despite this managed to fundamentally set within the architecture, as in this contemporary era methods are available, developments and resources needed for their realization and implementation in society, thus demarcating a new architectural style, example The Dancing House, located in Prague, Czech Republic (Slaughter, 1998).
- Site of architecture as experimental theory
There has been some worry about the recent use of the word “sustainable” public conversations, common or technical and argue a loss of meaning of the term by its growing popularity and the resulting polysemic. Others make a different assessment of this recurrence noting that at least brings the good news of a growing awareness. Amid all this “controversy pocket”, the breath persists readers who were and are the Rogers (1983) who still believe in our right to speak, not only for official use but to give it the deepest meanings the most complete of the interpretations, the most specific of the declines and the most persuasive of the suggestions. This tradition or this militancy proposes a constant construction, responsible, relevant and collective language, its meaning and its use and the attitude that lights when this article is to review what can be assumed the nickname “experimental” applied to architecture. Replaces well this etymological perspective written language on the other constructive uses Bury look no spurious or testimony submitted to any home or contribute to these glazes but the historical use of the words has been transformed into the richness and nuance of contemporary lines. The “experimental architecture” on the other hand, cannot expect even my words or those of others. Probably not entertain in the lyrics of this article because it has a full schedule of underscores “urgent”. There are two major issues that the claim and deal with some of the simplifications that the architects’ professional body, as a body, has adopted towards collective efficacy.
The first of these simplifications is to assume that the social needs that architecture responds offered irrefutable bases and packaged in competition, intervention plans and programs of action. These documents, drafted largely by other architects, freeze statistics on what the world calls apparently. You lose the dynamic perspective and depth that allow interaction in a process involved and round, with some credit define the true collective needs. Here we have one of the first lines to be drawn as quoted from the article: experimental architecture serves no functional definitions statistics but establishes a contact with the actual users and interact with them throwing some data about what is or is not necessary. Koskela and Vrijhoef (2001) first sentence to sum up the first group of urgent calls that agenda as outlined above and go to the promised second.
The second reason for urgency is the loss of contact with the physical environment. Again, other architects including Gentiles in the most varied sectors: the manufacture of products for the construction, drafting regulations or the development of professional journals, have been packaged for official practice of architecture in the physical environment matters to which architects must attend. “How polluter how or where to eat out” looking at a table. How far should we care about each of these factors, we tell them the Regulations. What are the landscapes to conserve, what integrated architecture, or as permissible is that things are old pint is a criterion that incorporate authentic indigestion after consumption of images with the stamp of the “architecture to do.” Already in the nineties Manuel de Landa (Bresnen and Marshall, 2001) said that architects “should falling in love of matter” and thus built a fantastic introduction to our second quoted: experimental architecture interacts with the physical environment and ranks among the scientifically and technically possible to resolvable obtain an updated definition and specific physical context in which it is inscribed. Those things that are urgent and very important are many substantive and formal but would have to say that, by extension, a statement charge here direct, light and that supporting limited value.
- Emergence of New territories
Since the early ’90s have been issuing publications and that evidence manifests greater transversality sources architectural design. These new design strategies have coincided with the accelerated acceptance of complex realities occurring in contemporary culture, where phenomena mobility, congestion, land occupation, multiculturalism, crisis environmental emergence of new economies, etc. have come to obtain the appearance of specific responses exceeded hurry margins ancient discipline.
While some historians and theorists such as (Barrett, Abbott, Sexton and Ruddock, 2007) and (Rice, Kelley, Peters and O’Connor, 2001) tried to propose some basis for continuity discipline even against the current of events, philosophers and sociologists like (Sergeeva and Radosavljevic, 2009) established thinking substrate through which have expressed new situations and the consequent need for responses. From this some architects, led by (Gann, 2000), have led to a renewed discourse this new dimension architecture environment which proposes architectural project. If Gann (2000) has worked more through his work illustrated with occasional writings, Sheremata (2004) has raised alongside its important architectural production, some of the few texts in that has developed this new re proposition discipline. Singularly, [Delirious New York (1975), SMLXL (1995) and Mutations (2000); (Horn , 2005)] have expressed the possibility of rereading the environment in a new way and, from there, guiding new strategies in response to project new contexts. In any case, Sheremata’s work remains as an exception, a unique theoretical effort, in a time when the own acceleration that characterized the events that determine it is becomes an inadequate scope for continued work theoretical historical architecture. The texts themselves Sheremata in his “different” end are voluntary formalization shows of this difficulty. Moreover, the transformation of the intimate nature of primitive ancient schools of architecture in modern centres overcrowded conditions has come to disrupt varied aspects the old way of learning architecture.
One of the most Notable changes affects something as essential as the relationship teacher-student. Essential because it is the articulation between the transmission of basic knowledge of operational for project formulation-the “office” – and training in a matter of less contingent character as a qualitative assessment of Project. This teacher-student relationship is based on the traditional training the architect from the Renaissance, is now destroyed and supplanted by collective communication procedures affecting especially so negative on two key issues. Firstly, the character recognition that globalizador Project assignments have on the rest of the materials of race cannot be well appreciated by the student if there is one close monitoring of their work to allow the continued influence presence of others as instruments of self-knowledge Project. This deficiency prevents finally can recognize the true complexity of the Projection architectural, formulations favouring its partial reduction of the problem. Along with this there is also a certain impossibility of transmitting own experience of architecture is one of the key elements of his teaching. This concerned destroys this mode understand issues close to project generation and reduces learning knowledge in the general aspects is not This is still the most important condition of architecture, we’ll miss the important stimuli accompanying teaching of a good professional.
- The New Architecture
At the beginning of twentieth century architecture students become aware that a new architecture should develop in line with the changing needs of man and the problems posed by the development of modern industrial and urban society. Cities grew so unusual and had to provide solutions to housing and urban growth. The Chicago School in the United States was in the last third of the nineteenth century by introducing new air, which still take to reach Europe. On the other hand, it was clear that the traditional styles (Primarily historical eclecticism and the aftershocks of modernism, which were still prevalent in Europe at the beginning of the century) were inadequate for the construction of new types of buildings: railway stations, airports, skyscrapers, communications towers, department stores, factories, etc. However, the new architectural language will not end to take root in all countries, including in Spain, until the third decade of the century (Dale, 2007).
A few points the characteristics of the new architecture of the twentieth century (Barrett, Abbott, Sexton and Ruddock, 2007):
- Different styles match in an extreme reaction against ornamental excess of historical styles and modernism. The architect puts functionality ahead to beauty of the building, because it should not lie in its decor but in simplicity and suitability for the role to which it is intended.
- Both facades and interior spaces and volumes are transformed. In part this is due to the use of new materials such as steel, concrete and glass, hovering outside without plaster and that enable open and airy spaces, with little supporting elements.
- Aesthetics moves between the pursuit of nudity and geometric simplicity and alignment with nature. We say that after a few feelers attached to budgets figurative art of the vanguards of the first three decades (modern architecture) and architecture generated by totalitarian regimes who seek a propaganda dimension, the architecture will evolve into its own language from the years 20 and 30 channelled through two main trends, the rationalism or and organics or that were not necessarily antagonistic and reign after World War II.
- Some critics believe that the end result led to an architecture without grace, monotonous and repetitive, and that these budgets has been achieved artistic than any city in the world has the same appearance as the other, eliminating the characteristics. The truth is not always the case, and that despite the simplicity and uniformity of works each architect who knew his works give the personal touch.
- Vibrancy in technological materials
The architecture answers the needs of space involving not only functional, but also social, cultural, aesthetic, economic and, in a very important in this, ecological. The architecture involves a commitment that goes beyond the right solution for individual buildings, also resolves issues in the broader context of the city and society. The architect has to be a connoisseur of the technological advances currently experiencing a wide range of materials construction, new ways to build, design and study the buildings, mathematical models applied to the design and screening of structures, etc. The professional who is not currently on par with the new technological advances in the sector involved building a professional is unfortunately outdated and does not adjust to the new changes taking place in the related areas. In recent years we have seen the evolution of many prosperous materials used for construction, new ways of using prefabricated materials, new programs Cad fully adjusted to the profession, and that result in a completely finished project (Sergeeva and Radosavljevic, 2009).
The architect must understand that their studies do not end when they graduate from college, but that’s the time when it begins a real journey to learn more advanced aspects involving the practice of medicine with more experience and dynamism. We must be aware that everything new about technological advances applied to architecture and civil engineering that are currently on the books, magazines and even on the Internet, and thus try to engage a little with each of these developments, either by applying some in our construction projects or simply deepen as large as possible on the subject (Bresnen and Marshall, 2001).
One of the recent transformations of contemporary culture that most clearly affect our ways of doing is derived from the appearance of uncertainty and we assign character sets in our protocols for action. From it we know that throughout the twentieth century marked a significant symbolic story of some contexts, allowing science and art build their models in a consistent and synchronous. Thus, the artistic vanguards questioned the possibility of a unified open outdoor outside while the Heisenberg uncertainty principle or the emergence of quantum mechanics would have helped challenge the idea of unlimited progress and salvation. At the same time, from the political, European fragmentation and European war the two crises were infeasible a unifying process, otherwise quite authoritarian. Later, at the start of the second half of the century, the science of chaos and the appearance of robotics eventually to build a picture of the world without a possible order where technological type robot drills come to fill gaps in a human and devoid of legitimacy that gave Enlightenment rationalism. From this perspective, postmodernism appears finally as a waiver of any possibility of control stimulant in the world, while the concept of consistency derives the waiver granted to organize our movements in a known sequence.
At bottom it was a replay, in a contemporary key, of the same break with the conventional approach based on the dictates of classicism that had led to the birth of modern architecture as a consequence of the technical, social and cultural changes triggered by the industrial revolution. And it took to heart the lessons of the historical avant-garde movements and the ideology of progress to which they had given expression in an explosion of creativity before this was curbed by the canons of linguistic structures that were objectively “recognizable” and translatable into constructions.
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