How to cite under APA standards in a Dissertation

How to cite under APA standards in a Dissertation

In general the one quoted in the dissertation, usually brings a great series of doubts that in this article we will try to clarify, at least the most important.


The APA Standards are a standard, a format, a very precise style on how a research paper should be presented. The acronym APA comes from the institution that created them, the American Psychological Association, founded by Stanley Hall in 1892. This style is one of the most used in Social Disciplines and that is why many universities adopt their use.


The first point to know is that, although generally referred to the Citation Form as “APA Standards” or “APA Style” itself the criteria, they range from Sheet Type (A4), Margins, Typographies Accepted (Times New Roman, Arial, Tahoma in size 12), Spacing (Inline 1.5), includes how many Titles and Subtitles or pages should be numbered. That is to say that in the APA Rules, not only it is stable as it should be cited, but they instruct on how the totality of a research work must be presented.


The second point to take into account, is that many times in the protocol for the presentation of the dissertation say “Use APA Standards to cite” but do not clarify the edition of the same, currently go for the 6th version ( Is a document of 272 pages and costs about 37 GBP) and this can bring difficulties, due to minimal changes between one edition and the other.


The third point to know is that we must differentiate the “Quotations” from the “References”. For the Appointments will be used at all times, the same appointment and the same book, to avoid confusion.




The Quotations can be of 2 types, (A) Direct: they are the Textual ones, as it expressed the author; (B) Hints: paraphrase is used, which is an ampliatory interpretation.


(A) Direct


A1) Text Citations of less than 40 words


Textual quotations of less than 40 words must be incorporated within the text and enclosed in double quotation marks. The text only records the author’s last name, the date of publication of the book and the number of the page.


With reference to Market Research Pope (2002) explains that “The size of business created the need for research, but it was the computers that created the capacity to do it.” (P.5)


If, for example, we close the paragraph with a Textual quote, there is another possibility, using the same Quote, it would be the same way).


“The size of business created the need for research, but it was the computers that created the capacity to do it.” (Pope, 2002, p.5)



A2) For quotations of 40 or more words you need to start on a new line, the text must be independent of the preceding paragraph. You should leave a 5-space indentation (which equals 5 lines in the Word rule, this would be 1.3). Comillas are not used


Pope (2002) explains that:


The size of the businesses created the need for research but it was the computers that created the capacity to do it. Most of the market research that is done today would be impossible without the computer. Even a simple study with 10 to 15 questions and 300 respondents would be very tedious to accurately tabulate by hand. (P.5)


To change the indentation of the Text Quotations, of more than 40 words, an image is left on how to do it.



In our experience, the most advisable for someone who is given the task of investigating in depth a topic for the first time, is to use the resource of textual quotations, which avoid misunderstandings, differentiate what the student says, the author And does not lend itself to forcing the thought of the authors, making them say things, which they did not really say.



(B) Indirect


Using the previous example, a paraphrase is displayed, of 3 styles.


B1) As says Pope (2002) have been computers that have enabled the development of market research, providing the necessary to work accurately technical capacity.


B2) […] computers which have allowed the development of market research, providing the necessary technical ability to work accurately (Pope, 2002) .


B3) In 2002, Pope said computers have been those that have allowed the development of market research, providing the necessary technical ability to work accurately.





The references are the sources from which the information was obtained (Commonly appears at the end as Bibliography). Currently, the internet has multiplied access to information, since much is digitized, Books, Book Chapters, Scientific articles, websites (blog, news, companies, etc).


With the idea of facilitating the work, I leave 2 tricks.


Search by ISBN


1) When one owns the physical book, it is possible through the ISBN, obtain the reference in the APA format.


In my case the Book ISBN that was used as an example is 958047026X. We enter the website



Load Manually


2) For when the document refers, for example, to a News portal, to the institutional page of a Company, etc … there is another trick …


They enter in that web, they look for the type of Reference and they load the data that requests …


Manually Cite Bibliographic References APA Standards



With these 2 tricks, they minimize the risk of making mistakes when submitting references. Another important point, by way of advice, is to separate those that are Books, of which they are Papers, of which they are website.





Obviously this is a small instruction, to facilitate the introduction to the cited under APA rules, there will surely appear doubts about how to quote more than one author, What happens when one author, quotes another author ?, etc. My advice is as situations arise, look specifically for that situation. For that I leave this link of the APA, where some examples are shown.


Author Bio

The author of this post works at the leading UK dissertation writing service. Jessica has a degree in Social Work and has been providing dissertation help to students from all across the globe. Jessica loves to read fictional novels and is a great Sherlock Holmes fan. She loves her job as an expert dissertation writer and is glad to be a part of the dissertation writing service program.

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