Behaviour for Learning

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  1. Introduction

Learning is, according to most experts, behavioural change with some permanence. From this point of view, most of the ideological baggage, cultural, social, values ​​or needs, is acquired. The media, in the impact of a society whose base is homogenized information to all human beings. It is through this factual situation from which we must discover the individual aspects of the human person and make decisions about their learning needs (Powell, 2005). In practice, no longer a substrate, worth bearing in mind, but little or no affect, the personality of the adult learner. We define learning as behaviour change that occurs with some permanence in the individuals of the human species. That is why the training must have a sense of rest, stability and reflection to allow things to remain in long-term memory, avoiding anything that takes speed, rote learning and all thoughtless actions. This papers aims to define the behaviour for learning in terms of self esteem and how much self esteem is in order to engage students in effective learning procedures (Ellis, 2009).

Self-esteem is a tool that plays a major role in the development process of any person. As the word implies, self-esteem is how I myself, is the concept and assessment I have on me. It takes self-confidence to learn. It has been found that when a child feels good about himself, will be more motivated to work for their own benefit. Self-esteem is invisible but is materialized through the manifestation of personal actions and expressions. The American psychologist William James wisely expressed a kind of mathematical formula in which he said that “the self is equal to the relationship between achievement and aspiration” (Lawrence, 2001). The self-esteem is the evaluative perception we have of ourselves, of our way of being, of who we are (who I am), the set of physical traits, mental and spiritual shape one’s personality (Fleetham, 2006).

The self-esteem is learned, fluctuates and can improve. It is from the 5-6 years when we begin to form our concept of how we see our parents, teachers, peers and the experiences that we acquire (Heyman, 1990). The level of self-esteem is responsible for many successes and failures in school. A high self-esteem, linked to a concept itself positive, enhance the ability of the person to develop their skills and increase the level of personal safety, while a low level of self-esteem focus to the person to defeat and failure. The self-esteem is important because our way of perceiving and valuing shapes our lives. Self-esteem is a personal feeling in which the student is given a value itself. Could say that a learner has high self-esteem when you know what you can do is respect yourself for what you do and who you are. This is a quality that should be encouraged in every person, even more so in childhood.

Self-esteem begins when the child is very young; differentiating what is “I” of the “other” or the environment. At this point the child is extremely vulnerable to the value judgments that may come from adults; this may work as programming a computer with verbal messages, nutritious or toxic and thus guide their personality in the future. Every child that is born is potentially achiever brings a wealth biological, psychological and social, if deployed in a full and harmonious, lead him in the way of personal fulfilment (Kamble, 2007).

  1. Discussion

2.1. Learning

The learning is the process through which skills are acquired or modified, skills , knowledge , behaviours or values ​​as a result of the study , the experience , the training , reasoning and observation . This process can be analyzed from different perspectives, so there are different theories of learning. Learning is one of the most important mental functions in humans, animals and artificial systems. Human learning is related to the education and personal development. Must be oriented properly and is favoured when the individual is motivated. The study of how learning interested to neuropsychology, the educational psychology and pedagogy.

Learning is the process by which a particular skill is acquired, assimilated information or adopts a new strategy of knowledge and action. Learning as establishing new temporal relationships between environmental being and has been the subject of several empirical studies, in both animals and humans. Measuring progress in a while we obtain the learning curves, which show the importance of repetition of some physiological predispositions of “trials and errors”, periods of rest after which accelerate progress, etc. They also show the last relation of learning with conditioned reflexes (Polatajko, Law, Miller, Schaffer, & al, 1991).

2.2. Theories of Learning

Learning the theories and processes of knowledge acquisition have had during the last century tremendous development due mainly to advances in psychology and instructional theories, which have tried to systematize the mechanisms associated with mental processes that make learning possible. There are several theories of learning; each from a particular perspective analyzes the process. One the most widespread is:

2.2.1. Behavioural theories:

  1. Classical conditioning

From the perspective of I. Pavlov, in the early twentieth century, proposed a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus (such as before the conditioning stimulus generates no response naturally interests us) generates a response after a stimulus is associated with naturally causes this response. When complete the conditioning, the previously neutral stimulus comes to be a conditioned stimulus that elicits the conditioned (Heyman, 1990).

  1. Reinforcement

BF Skinner proposed for learning a type of repetitive reinforcement, whereby a stimulus increased the likelihood of a repeat certain behaviour before. From the perspective of Skinner, various enhancers active in all human beings variously induce desired behaviour repeatability. Among them are: bonds, toys and good grades serve as reinforces very helpful. Moreover, not all reinforces serve equally and significantly in all people, can be a type of reinforce that fails to produce the same rate of repetition of a behaviour may even completely ceased (Heyman, 1990).

iii. Behaviourism

From a behavioural perspective, made ​​by BF Skinner ( operant conditioning ) to mid- twentieth century and stems from psychological studies of Pavlov on Classical conditioning and the work of Thorndike ( Instrumental conditioning ) on the effort, tries to explain learning from of laws and mechanisms common to all subjects. They were the pioneers in the study of behaviour animal, then human related. Behaviourism states that learning is a change in the way of behaviour according to the changing environment. According to this theory, learning is the result of the association of stimuli and responses.

The behaviourism, according to its founder John Watson, is a natural science that assumes the entire field of human adaptations. To BF Skinner (Crocker & Major, 1999) is a philosophy of science of behaviour, which defines several key aspects of its subject study. However, this object is treated in different ways, depending on the behavioural approach which is part.

Another renowned author of this current in its modality inter-behavioural JR Kantor (1963/1990), defines it as: a waiver of the doctrines of the soul, the mind and consciousness, to deal with the study of organisms interacting with their environment. More broadly, it considers as equivalent to the term “science “(Campos, 1973), since it deals with the nature from the “principle of behaviour.” Thus, the chemical studies the behaviour of the elements and the substance, physical studies the behaviour of matter and its properties, the astronomy studies the behaviour of stars and galaxies, and psychology studies the interactions between organisms and their environment. In sum, “behaviourism” is a way of studying the psychological from the perspective of a science of behaviour, without mentalist, or reductionism (Crocker & Major, 1999).

2.3. Self Esteem

The way we feel about ourselves decisively affects virtually every aspect of our experience, from the way we function at work, love or sex, to precede as our parents and our possibilities of progress in life. Our responses to events and depend on who do we think we are. Self-esteem is the key to success of failure. It is also the key to understanding and understanding others. Apart from the problems of biological origin, there is no single psychological difficulties (from anxiety and depression, fear of intimacy or success, abuse women or men or statutory rape, sexual dysfunctions or immature (emotionally, through suicide or violent crime) that is not attributable to a poor self-esteem (Staddon, 1983).

What is self-esteem? It has two components: a sense of personal ability and a sense of personal worth. In other words, it is the sum of self confidence and self respect. It reflects the implicit judgment that everyone does their ability to face the challenges of life (to understand and overcome the problems) and their right to be happy (to uphold their interests and needs). Having high self-esteem is to feel confidently capable for life, that is, capable and valuable, have low self esteem is feeling useless for life, wrong, not about this or that issue, but as a person wrong. Having a middle ground of self-esteem is apt to fluctuate between feeling useless, approached and wrong as a person, and manifest these inconsistencies in behaviour (sometimes act wisely, sometimes foolishly), reinforcing thus insecurity (Roberts, 2006).

2.3.1. The Concept of Self Esteem

Alcantara (1993) defines self-esteem as usual “attitude towards oneself, the usual way of thinking, loving, feel and behave him. Is the description whereby permanent as we face ourselves. “It is the fundamental system by which we order our experiences by referring to our personal “I”.

Haeussler and Milicic (1995) argue that self-esteem “judgments would be the sum of a person’s self. It is the affective dimension of personal image data that relates to life experiences objectives and expectations.” Self-esteem, then, would be the degree of self-satisfaction, self-assessment.

Copper Smith (1990) who said: The term refers to self-assessments that a person does and commonly held about himself. I.e. global self-esteem is an expression of approval or disapproval that indicates the extent to which the competent person believes to be important and worthy.

2.4. Learning and Self Esteem

            There is a close relationship between self-esteem and learning. A strong self-esteem fosters learning. The young man who has good self-esteem and learn more easily pleased, will address the new things you have to learn with confidence and enthusiasm. There are two kinds of people: People with low self esteem and people with high self esteem (Ellis, 2009).

2.5. Components of Self Esteem

Self-Esteem has three components (McKay, 2009):

  • Cognitive: Indicating idea, opinion, belief, perception and information processing. “
  • Affective: It involves assessing what in us is positive and negative; it signifies a sense of how favourable or unfavourable, that a person feels about herself.
  • Behavioural: Refers to the stress, intention and action that make the person itself.

2.6. Importance of Self Esteem

Self-esteem is important because (McKay, 2009):

  • It conditions learning. Students who have a positive self-image of himself are better able to learn.
  • Facilitates overcoming personal difficulties. A person with high self-esteem, feel more able to cope with failures and problems it faces.
  • Supports creativity, a person can work to create something if you trust yourself.
  • Determines personal autonomy, if you have confidence, you can make your own decisions.
  • Enables a healthy social relationship, the person feels confident, can relate better.

2.7. Types of Self Esteem: Low and High Self Esteem

Children with low self-esteem tend to use adaptive strategies the school environment little “productive” that do not promote success or growth in the long run. The most common are: copy role models for other students, be clowns, disturbing others, poor classroom behaviour, avoidance of tasks, making excuses to downplay a bad note like that is silly or a roll, which the teacher cannot explain and it’s your fault, “I do not care ….” Often or blame another comment that “I do not worry, all is well” (self facade) to hide his painful sense of “I am a failure, I cannot change, I cannot get a good performance.” In the family environment can be displayed discouraged or sad and prone to constant self-criticism. Or the opposite, withdrawn and dependent on their affection figures (parents) needing excessive attention and constant approval thereof. These are children who need guidance insecure adult homework or making any decision. Usually react with low tolerance to frustration and reaction with anger, anger, opposition or constant emotional changes. Adults tend to think that these children lack perseverance, work and interest. But his escape is simply an attempt to avoid a frustration that seriously damages their self-concept or self-esteem. No child is immune to fear that emerges from a situation of failure or error, but children with learning disabilities are especially vulnerable this fear (Slavin, 1991).

They have experienced so much failure that his energy is set to avoid this frustration instead of implementing effective strategies to face and also does not know how to choose effective strategies beginning a “vicious circle”. Understanding these children is the starting point for change. Children with low autotestima tend to use strategies that are unproductive and do not promote the success or growth. The most common are: copy of another, be clowns, disturbing others, avoidance of the task or game, exposing excuses to downplay the situation as it is boring or silly, the teacher cannot explain. Such behaviours are attempted to manage stress which cause these tasks and to maintain a sense of dignity. To help a child with learning difficulties must teach to replace these maladaptive strategies by more adaptive and efficient. This is important to provide opportunities to strengthen their self-esteem. Children with high self-esteem tend to use adaptive strategies that promote growth. For example, a child who has difficulty solving a calculation will ask for help. A person with high self-esteem, live, share and invites the integrity, honesty, responsibility, understanding and love, feels it’s important, have confidence, have faith in your decisions and accept yourself completely as a human being (Greenwald & Banaji, 1995).

2.8. Influence of School

It is essential that parents and teachers-in who parents trust-ultimately, are capable of providing clear values. It is very important to teach both children and young people the meaning of these values. Educators should be aware of the different rates of development of each child, so that they feel comfortable in school and to take advantage of the time spent due to form at both academic and personal. It is also important to understand that each child’s mind is full of images. These images are three dimensional (Lawrence, 2001):

  • The first dimension is related to the student’s image of himself.
  • The second dimension is related to the view that the child’s self in relation to others.
  • The third dimension is related to self-image as it is and I wish it was.

For all this it is very important that the time children spend in school will help them discover and learn to be people who want to be, respecting their time, conflict and confusion.

To be a good teacher must understand and accept that (Clarke, 1998):

  • The school is an institution in which you can improve or degrade people.
  • You have to know how to create an enabling environment to find opportunities within it, where each child can feel important.
  • It must recognize and value the strengths of each child.
  • We must be aware of the feelings and images that children have in mind when they go to school.
  • You have to be relatively compromising with inappropriate behaviours as children, loved still unstable and in process of formation, are governed by aggressive posturing or wrong.
  1. Conclusion

When talking about self-esteem in the educational system, referring to the influence of this aspect, the active student participation in the teaching – learning. So “do not speak of isolated behaviours but contacts, experiences and integration. All these processes are expressed and transformed, creating new and higher forms of contact and expression, highly motivational. Self-esteem is vital because it is the force that organizes, gives meaning and direction to student performance in their education. The learning process linked directly to the student who must be motivated both by the family and social environment, and the teacher-student relationship is critical as it is vital that the environment in which the student acquires knowledge is harmonious, pleasant, nice, participatory, for the adolescent to develop a sense of belonging for the same, which leads to effective teaching process (Adams, 2009).

The teacher should take into consideration some important aspects that influence learning. Self-concept refers to a set of beliefs about himself, manifested in behaviour.  The Self reflects the ability of assessing internal goodies if they are for the individual, you are satisfied, are interesting, enriching, make you feel good and allow you to grow and learn, and consider them as bad if they are for the person, not meet, no interest, they hurt and not allow it to grow.

Self-Acceptance is to admit and recognize all parts of himself as a fact, as the way of being and feeling, as only through acceptance can transform which it is susceptible. The self-care concerns and makes the individual satisfaction of their needs and values. Expressing and conveniently manage feelings and emotions, without harming or blame. Search and appreciate anything that makes the individual feel proud of you. The education system and the family have given little attention to training and increasing the self-esteem of children, but it is worth saying that self-esteem is the judgment that a person has formed about its own value. Therefore it is essential that both the family and the educational event will prioritize create and encourage self-esteem in young high that motivates him to acquire knowledge, values ​​be taken to serve as a useful and comprehensive individual in society (Powell, 2005).

So it follows that the teacher has a great responsibility in the development of the student’s personality and the formation of a positive self-image, so the teacher must use tools that provide everyone the opportunity to gain confidence in itself, as well as a higher level of self-esteem. This makes the young fit so you can solve the problem presented to it along the achievement of their goals. Anyway esteem leads the subject to discover and learn (Perlman, 1996).

 

 

References

Adams, K. (2009). Behaviour for Learning in the Primary School. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

ALCÁNTARA, Joseph A . (1993), Educating Self-Esteem, Barcelona, Edit. ECAC SA.

Clarke, J. I. (1998). Self-Esteem: A Family Affair. Hazelden: Hazelden Publishing.

Crocker, J., & Major, B. (1999). Social stigma and self-esteem: The self-protective properties of stigma. Psychological Review , 96 (4), 608-630.

Copper Smith (1990), Psychology and social psychology. Buenos Aires, Polity Press.

Ellis, S. (2009). Behaviour for Learning: Proactive Approaches to Behaviour Management. New York: Taylor & Francis.

Fleetham, M. (2006). Multiple Intelligences in Practice: Enhancing self-esteem and learning in the classroom. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review , 102 (1), 4-27.

Heyman, W. B. (1990). The Self-Perception of a Learning Disability and Its Relationship to Academic Self-Concept and Self-Esteem. Journal of Learning Disabilities , 23 (8), 472-475.

Haeussler and Milicic (1995), How to improve your self-esteem, Mexico. Edit. Paides

Kamble, S. (2007). Psychology of Learning Behaviour. New Delhi: Global Vision Publishing Ho.

Lawrence, D. (2001). Building Self-Esteem with Adult Learners. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

McKay, M. (2009). Self-esteem: Easyread Edition. -: ReadHowYouWant.com.

Perlman, A. (1996). Self-Esteem. Hazelden: Hazelden Publishing.

Polatajko, H. J., Law, M., Miller, J., Schaffer, R., & al, e. (1991). The effect of a sensory integration program on academic achievement, motor performance, and self-esteem in children identified as learning disabled: Results of a clinical trial. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research , 11 (3), 155-176.

Powell, J. (2005). Self-Esteem. Mankota: Black Rabbit Books.

Roberts, R. (2006). Self-Esteem and Early Learning: Key People from Birth to School. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

Slavin, R. E. (1991). Synthesis of Research of Cooperative Learning. Educational Leadership , 48 (5), 71-82.

Staddon, J. E. (1983). Adaptive Behaviour and Learning. Cambridge: CUP Archive.

 

 

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