As mentioned in another post the development of the dissertation is the best thing that can happen to students, but we never said that it was an easy process. The development of the thesis requires mastering two large dimensions: the first refers to what we are going to write (the subject); And the second, the way in which student must (yes or no) do it.
That is to say, not only do we have to come up with an issue, but we must also learn to use – in most cases – the APA standards (standard adopted by the American Psychological Association).
For some time the so-called APA style is used in most educational institutions; This style was developed with the aim of achieving a better understanding of reading. This means that, with its implementation, it aims to achieve jobs with a minimum of distraction and a maximum of precision in its development. At this point the American Psychological Association is already going through the sixth edition of its style manual. And it is that the formats that carry information feasible to be cited have changed a lot in recent years.
Let’s review some basic questions
When we are ready to use the APA rules we have to know that what this style points out, above all else, is to practicality in every way. By this I mean that when they start to write they have to think that everything they want to put in their thesis, or enters the box of paragraphs or does not enter. Therefore, with this information, you must already imagine that your thesis will not carry notes at the bottom or the end of the chapter.
The mode of writing is in 3rd person and in an academic-professional tone. They will have to get rid of the habit of writing that they are accustomed to read where they appear prayers like this: “In the following chapter we will see the way in which this particularity occurs …” Now, if this sentence would be written under the magnifying glass of APA, Would be like this: “In the next chapter you will see the way in which this particularity occurs …” Do they realize the difference?
In relation to the modality of quoted (and clarified, in paragraph) it is divided into two groups: textual quotations and paraphrases .
The textual quotations , in turn, are divided into two groups:
Less than 40 words : in paragraph, with quotation marks, same typography as the paragraph, is not italicized.
School failure is a problem that mostly affects the poor. Studies of deserters conclude that there is a “relationship between socio-economic conditions of students and their probability of school success or failure” (Herrera, 2009, p.257)
More than 40 words : it is incorporated into a separate block (that is, they place it in the line next to the paragraph they are developing) and the quotation marks are omitted. In addition, simple line spacing is used and is given a margin in relation to the paragraph of 5 spaces with the space bar.
In both cases do not change the body of the typography that they are using (usually: Times New Roman 12 or Arial 11) Remember that, regardless of the citation mode they are using, there are three data that must always be present , In the paragraph, or at least two: the surname of the author (only the surname), the year of publication and / or article and the page number . In relation to the number of the page of our appointment may not be put because we are using a paraphrase or because it is an online document, and the paragraph where we put the appointment does not put the complete link (which would represent what to the book the Page number) But, it does put itself in the reference list.
Often this question arises from the use of paraphrases : “How do I know I’m not plagiarizing the author?” . Generally, when making a paraphrase this one is shorter than the original citation. The thesis is expected to express what the author says, but with his words (this is not: “right-click: synonyms”) And we are supposed to understand what the author says, not “what we think he says with that He says”.
How do we bring bibliographic citations to the reference list?
The sources consulted can be registered in our thesis in two lists, that is to say that we divide them into two groups: the list of references and the bibliography , both are ordered in alphabetical order. They are not divided by type of source (books, journals, videos) or by chapter.And they are located at the end of the work, as indicated the index of our thesis.
In the list of references we will point to all the sources that we quote, that is to say that “if we quote it is in the reference”. On the other hand, the bibliographic list is everything we read about our thesis topic that led us to put together the list that we have now in the reference but we do not quote.
As I said at the beginning of the post the APA manual goes for its sixth edition.